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service in St. Peter's. "The immense area and colon nade before the church are lined with troops, and crowd ed with thousands of spectators. All eyes are fixed on the gallery [in the front of the church;] the chant of the choir is heard at a distance; the blaze of numberless torches plays round the columns; and the pontiff appears, elevated on his chair of state, under the middle arch. Instantly the whole multitude below fall on their knees; the cannons of St. Angelo give a general discharge, while rising slowly from his throne, he lifts his hands to heaven, stretches forth his arm, and thrice gives his benediction, to the crowd, to the city, and to all mankind: a solemn pause follows, another discharge is heard, the crowd rises, and the pomp gradually disappears.' Whenever the pontiff appears in public, all kneel in his sight; and in private, there are 'greater appearances of splendour in the approach to his person than in an introduction to any other sovereign." In the ceremony called the adoration of the Pope, which takes place almost immediately after his election, "he is placed in a chair on the altar of the Sixtine chapel, and there receives the homage of the cardinals; this ceremony is again repeated on the high altar of St. Peter's." "But why"—asks the writer quoted above-"why should the altar be made his footstool! The altar, the beauty of holiness, the throne of the victim-lamb, the mercy-seat of the temple of Christianity; why should the altar be converted into the footstool of a mortal?" 59 Why, indeed, but as a fulfilment of the apostolic prediction-" He as God, sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God?"

The right of electing the Pope is vested in the cardinals, who are also bound to choose one of their own number. The cardinals are the deacons, priests, and bishops of Rome and its suburbs. Their number is seventy, and they are created at the pleasure of the pontiff. They constitute the consistory, or council of the apostolic see; preside over the Pope's tribunals; and enjoy great privileges and honours.

58 Eustace's Classical Tour, ii. 167-171.

59 Ibid. iv. p. 368, 381-383.

60 Much useful information on this subject is contained in a work published a few years ago, entitled" Catholicism in Austria."

Of the Roman pontiff as a temporal prince, it is not necessary to speak in this place. His territory comprises a tract of country about 120 miles long, and from 80 to 100 broad, thinly peopled, and badly cultivated. Happiness and prosperity are blessings known by few under his administration.

The reforming decree passed in the twenty-third session contained eighteen chapters. Its principal enactments were included in the three following particulars: 1. The residence of the clergy. The chapter on this

subject commenced with these words:- "Since all to whom the cure of souls is committed, are bound by divine command to know the state of their flocks; to offer sacrifice for them; to feed them, by the preaching of the divine word, the administration of the sacraments, and the example of all good works; to exercise paternal care over the poor and other distressed persons; and to apply themselves to all other pastoral duties, which cannot be performed by those who, instead of watching over the flock, leave it, as the hirelings do:-the holy council admonishes and exhorts them to remember the divine precepts, and to be patterns of the flock, feeding and ruling the same in judgment and truth.” Personal residence is then enjoined on ecclesiastics of every grade: but it is observable that several legitimate causes of absence are allowed, viz. "Christian charity, urgent necessity, due obedience, and the advantage of the church or state;" of these, the Pope was constituted supreme judge, and next, the metropolitan, or, in his absence, the senior suffragan bishop. It is true that provision was directed to be made for the churches in such cases, and that temporary periods of absence were prohibited to exceed two or at the most three months in the whole year; but the above-mentioned exceptions might be made to extend to any length of time, and the divine right of residence, which had been the fruitful source of so much contention, was kept entirely out of sight.— 2. The age, qualifications, &c. of candidates for holy orders. It was enjoined that none should be admitted to minor orders under fourteen years of age. Sub-deacons must be twenty-two years old, deacons twentythree, and priests twenty-five. Some suitable directions are given respecting the examination of candidates, and

the requisite qualifications for office. It would have been well had they been always duly observed.-3. The education of candidates for ecclesiastical offices. Provision was made for the institution of seminaries, in which youths might receive instruction, the poor gratuitously, the rich by paying certain fixed charges. They were to learn grammar, singing, and other sciences; and to become versed in scripture, ecclesiastical reading, the homilies of the saints, and the rites and ceremonies used in the administration of the sacraments. Special care was to be taken that they attended mass every day, confessed their sins once a month, and partook of the Lord's supper under the direction of the confessor. They were to receive the first tonsure immediately on their admission, to wear the clerical habit, and to be gradually initiated into the services of the church, 61

61 Pallav, I. xxi. c. 12. Sarpi, 1. viii. s. 25,




Crafty policy of the Legates with respect to reform—TWENTYFOURTH SESSION-Decree on Matrimony-Doctrine and practice of the Church of Rome in regard to the celibacy of the ClergyMonasticism, and its effects-Decree respecting the Monastic Orders.

THE records of the council of Trent become less interesting as we approach the termination of its proceedings. A very cursory review of the remainder of the history will be sufficient for the present purpose.

Lengthened discussions on matrimony had taken place before the twenty-third session. These debates were remarkably dry and jejune, and indeed chiefly related to customs or circumstances peculiar to those times. The marriage costs may be excepted; but even on this subject there was scarcely any difference of opinion. All agreed in extolling the virtues of celibacy, and the most part denounced as heretics such as maintained the lawfulness of the marriage of the clergy; while some few were willing to admit that there were cases in which the Pope might dispense with the vow of chastity. The Protestant reader will not care to inquire for the arguments by which men attempted to withstand the dictates of nature, and pervert the word of God. 62

62 Pallav. 1. xx. c. 1, 4. ; xxii. c. 1. 4, 9. Sarpi, 1. vii. s. 59, 62, 64, 70. One divine edified the fathers with a long "disputation" on this subject. Like Ruth, he said, he would follow the reapers, those who had spoken before him, collect the few small ears they had left, separate them from dirt and straw, and present them to fair Naomi," that is, the holy Catholic church, my mother." His tirade was in the form of an imaginary dialogue between himself and Calvin. Thus

"Alas, my good friend Calvin, may God convert thee: what absurdity are you now cherishing? Calvin answers. I cherish absurdities? I am contriving a method by which I will do away with the

Two measures proposed by the legates, but ultimately withdrawn or considerably modified, deserve to be mentioned, as illustrative of the spirit and designs of the papacy. The first was as follows:-when the sacrament of orders was under discussion, a canon was presented to the fathers, enjoining princes and civil rulers in general, to require of all persons whom they should. invest with any public office, dignity, magistracy, or place of trust, that they should subscribe to a creed therein recited, comprising the distinctive tenets of the Roman Catholic religion, and concluding with a solemn promise to reject all novel doctrines, avoid all schism, detest every heresy, and promptly and faithfully assist the church against all heretics whatsoever. 63

The other measure was a proposal for the reformation of the civil powers. Assailed on all sides by urgent demands for reform, the legates were compelled to put on the appearance of concession. They prepared a decree, touching as lightly as possible the evils and abuses which had excited such general indignation. The closing articles of the decree were levelled at the sovereigns and states of Europe. It was pretended that the church also had just cause for remonstrance and complaint, and that the reformation would not be complete, unless the encroachments of the secular on the ecclesiastical power were abolished. The legates had even the assurance to demand that the clergy should enjoy an absolute immunity from the civil jurisdiction, in all causes whatsoever; that spiritual causes, and those of a mixed nature, should be tried before ecclesiastical judges, to the entire exclusion of laymen, and that these judges should receive their appointments from their spiritual superiors, and not

custom of celibacy and will establish a state of whoredom for myself and for those who apostatized with me.

"Are you in your senses, O Calvin? Do you, wretched man, attempt to overturn the rite of celibacy which God instituted, John the Baptist observed, and Christ commended and acknowledged? Are you ignorant that the work of God cannot be destroyed by the power of man or of Satan? You are mad, Calvin, you are mad; your lusts have made you twice a fool," &c. Le Plat, v. p. 725-743.

63 Sarpi, 1. viii. s. 22. Le Plat, vi. p. 32-42. It is somewhat singular that Pallavicini makes no reference to this creed: it is dif ficult to believe that he was ashamed of it.

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