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tine, and the elector of Brandenburg, declared that they would submit only to a free council, in which the Pope should not preside, either personally or by his legates, and in which the Protestant divines should have a deliberative voice; and in order to secure perfect liberty they demanded that the prelates should be released from their oath of allegiance to the Pope, and that the decrees already passed at Trent should be re-examined. Charles spared no pains to induce them to comply with his wishes; and at length, on his assurance that he would use all possible efforts that their conditions should be granted, and that at any rate the Protestant divines should have full liberty of speech, they gave consent. The ambassadors of the imperial cities were far less tractable; they resolutely refused to yield to the council, and all the negotiations and attempts of the emperor's ministers to procure a different decision were unavailing. After several fruitless conferences, being summoned before the emperor and again urged to submission, they presented a paper, containing the conditions on which they would submit. Charles took no notice of the document, but thanked them for føllowing the example of Maurice and the others, and thus they were dismissed, without any further explanation on either side! The remaining members of the diet acceded to the council, and required that all should be obliged to obey its decrees; only they wished that the Protestants should be furnished with an ample safe-conduct, and be permitted to state and defend their opinions. 18

Nothing now remained but to persuade the Pope to remove the council back again to Trent. But his Holiness was inexorable. He pretended that he had not interfered in the translation: the council had voluntarily removed to Bologna, and must voluntarily return to Trent; he left it to their unfettered decision. On the other hand, they were sufficiently aware of his inclinations, and refused even to consider the question till the dissenting prelates had joined them. Various plans were suggested, in the hope of effecting conciliation or

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mutual compromise; but every effort was unsuccessful, and it was evident that a resolution was formed to refuse all the emperor's requests. Perceiving this, he ordered solemn protestation to be made in his name against the translation, and against all the subsequent proceedings of the council. This was done, both at Bologna and Rome, according to the usual forms. '9

The publication of the Interim followed. It was a bold and extraordinary step. A system of doctrine decidedly Roman Catholic, though framed and expressed with studied ambiguity, and a scheme of ecclesiastical discipline comprising some useful innovations, were imposed upon Germany, and both were to remain in force till the decisions of a satisfactory general council had restored peace and unity to the church. 20 By this act the emperor openly set at defiance the authority of the assembly at Bologna; and the Papal party saw that it was necessary to settle the dispute respecting the translation, since otherwise the long-agitated question of reform would probably be decided in a manner little palatable to the Roman See.

At first, great excitement was occasioned by the publication of the Interim. Before it was issued to the world copies had been sent to Bologna and Rome, that it might be examined by the Papal divines. Catharin and Seripand, who were charged with the examination, complained that in the statement of those doctrines which had been already decided at Trent, the language of the decrees was not adopted; and on the remainder they made sundry unfavourable remarks and criticisms. Some proposed to declare the translation to Bologna lawful, in direct opposition to the emperor, and then to suspend the council till happier times. De Monte was much

19 At Bologna, Jan. 16, 1548, by Vargas and Velasco: at Rome, by the ambassador, Mendoza. Pallav. ut sup. c. 11. Sarpi, s. 16. Le Plat, iii. p. 684-727. The narrative is curious and interesting, but too long for insertion. Vargas says that he was in danger of his life at Bologna, and owed his safety to the bishop of Venosa. Lettres et Memoires, p. 378. 20 Pallav. ut sup. c. 17. 101.

Sarpi, s. 21-24. Le Plat, iv. p. 32—

exasperated; he earnestly requested the Pope to transfer the whole business of the assembly to Rome, where it might be managed under his own inspection, without fear of interference. Others wished that legates might be sent into Germany with all possible despatch, in the hope that they would be permitted to mould the Interim into some more tolerable form, before it was published. The wiser part exhorted their brethren to let it alone.— But all were astonished at the arrogance of the emperor, a secular prince, in presuming to dictate in matters of religion, which had been for ages considered the sole prerogative of the priesthood. As for the Pontiff, though he was somewhat agitated by this new attempt to infringe upon his authority, he soon perceived the folly and futility of the measure, and foresaw, that like many other attempts to reconcile opposite systems and interests, it would displease all parties. And so it proved. Both Protestants and Roman Catholics wrote against the Interim and refused to submit to it: it was altogether a mortifying failure.

Almost two years had now elapsed since the translation of the council, and there was less hope than ever of healing the breach which was then made. Fear of the emperor, and concern to preserve the friendship of his new ally, the king of France, kept the Pope in a state of hesitation, and prevented him from taking any decisive step. But the assembly at Bologna had dwindled into utter insignificance; scarcely any were left but the avowed pensionaries of the Apostolic See: to dignify it by the appellation of "General Council" was too ridicu lous to be permitted any longer. The reputation of the Roman Catholic church required the dissolution of that body; and De Monte was informed (Sept. 17, 1549) that as the Pope intended to have the question of reform discussed at Rome, the labours of the fathers were no longer required. In obedience to this message the few remaining prelates left Bologna.2 1

Paul III. did not long survive the council. He died Nov. 10, 1549.

21 Pallav. 1. xi. c. 4.

suspension of the

In his last mo

ments he bitterly bewailed the ingratitude and neglect with which he was treated, and wished he had never been born.22 But few Popes have found a death-bed


22 Thuan. 1. vi. s. 10. The curious reader may be diverted by the perusal of an amusing pasquinade, purporting to describe the reception of the Pontiff in the infernal regions. Wolf. Lectiones Memorabiles, tom. ii. p. 554-559.




Election of Julius III. to the Papal chair-Negotiations between the Pope and the emperor respecting the resumption of the councilPublication of the bull-Objections of the Protestants--The council re-opened-ELEVENTH SESSION-TWELFTH SESSION-EXhortation of the Legates-Protestation of the King of FranceDebates on the Eucharist, and on appeals to Rome-THIRTEENTH SESSION-Decree on the Eucharist-Postponement of certain articles till the arrival of the Protestants-Safe conduct granted them -Ambassadors from the Elector of Brandenburg.

WHEN the cardinals entered into the conclave to choose a new Pope, they prepared and signed a series of resolutions, which they severally bound themselves by solemn oath to observe, in the event of being elected to the Apostolic chair. The resumption of the council, the establishment of such reforms as it might enact, and the reformation of the court of Rome, were included. 23 It was long before they could agree, so powerful was the influence of party feelings and conflicting interests, producing complicated intrigue, and thereby extending their deliberations to a most inconvenient and wearisome length. At last the choice fell on De Monte the former legate at Trent, who was publicly installed into his high office, Feb. 23, 1550, and assumed the name of Julius III.24

The well known character and previous conduct of the new Pontiff gave little hope of an amicable adjust

23 Le Plat, iv. p. 156-159.

24 Histoire des Conclaves, tom. i. p. 101-110. Julius bestowed his cardinal's hat on a young man named Innocent, the keeper of his monkey, of whom he was suspected to be too fond. When the cardinals remonstrated with him on occasion of this promotion, he replied, "And what merit did you discover in me, that you raised me to the Popedom?" They could not easily answer such a question. Vide Thuan. Hist. ut sup.

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