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They all cried and cut themselves, and knocked their heads, when they found the deceased did not arise; and this they did for many days.

Another god they had was Matariki (the Pleiades) which they worshipped, and another was the pukatea leaf, the paiku and the nikau (palm), and the oil of the coconut.


Lieut-Col. Gudgeon, C.M.G., late Govt. Resident at Rarotonga, writing to us in 1899, says: 'I was recently talking to a chief of Manihiki island, and he told me a peculiar story. He said that in the early days of their history the Ara-a-toka' canoe under the chiefs Tuao, Toka, Toko, and Tikitiki-a-rangi, went away on a voyage of discovery, and among other places visited was an island called Nukumautere, where they found only women living. One of the crew named Waikohu went among the women, and in the struggle as to who should keep the man, he was killed. On the return of the canoe, the crew reported that it would take a thousand nights to reach the nearest land. For this reason the Manihiki people stayed at their island home for many generations, until at last a young ariki led the way and discovered Samoa, Pukapuka, and other islands."

"The Manihiki people, like the Cook Islanders, declare that New Zealand was called Hawaiki, and that some of their ancestors came from there."

Now this story of the island inhabited by women only, is the same island known to Maori tradition as that inhabited by the Nuku-mai-tore people (the same name as Nuku-mau-tere above-the change is merely dialectical) who were visited by Whiro and Tura, who flourished in the thirteenth century. It is a world-wide story, embodied in the folk-lore of many nations. Pigafetta, the historian of Magellan's voyage (the first circumnavigation of the globe) in 1519-23, mentions the story as being current in the Moluccas at the time of their visit. He says, P. 218,*They told us also that in an island called Ocoloro, below Java, there are no one but women, who are impregnated by the wind. If a boy is born he is killed immediately; but if a girl she is spared; if a man visits their isle, he is at once killed."

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'Primier Voyage autour du monde," L'An IX. (of the Republic of France).

No. 30.



Extract from the Maui Legend collected by Stephen Savage,
dictated by More-Taunga-o-te-tini (S. Terei).

IA tae ki tetai tuatau kua tuatua (korero) iora te au atua tini i te rangi, koia a Tongaiti ma Tangaroa ma Ruenuku, ma Tane ma Tu ma Rena ma Rongo-ma-tane ma Rongo ma tetai atu rai atua e, ka tiki ia Māui ki Avaiki. Kua akataka iora ratou i te ka tiki ia Māui. Kua vananga ratou e oti ake ra te vananga kua taka ko Ro (koia a Roe) te ka tono atura. Kua eke atura a Ro ki Avaiki, e kitea mai e Maui: kua kite takere a Māui e e tiki teia iaia. Kua ui atura aia kia Ro, "Eaa toou aereanga?" Kua nako maira a Ro, "I unga mai nei au i te tiki ia koe, te karanga mai ra te au atua tini o te rangi ka anatu ra koe ki runga." Kua karanga atura a Māui, “O, kare e kino, te kite nei au―oatu ra, ka aere.” Ei reira kua karanga a Ro, "Ei mua koe e tama, ei muri au." Karanga atura a Māui, "Ka na mua rai koe ei muri au."

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Kua aere atura a Ro, na mua aia, e i na muri a Māui i te aereanga mai mei Avaiki, kia aere mai i te ara, kua oro a Ro kua tapinipini ra ki roto i te rakau, e ki roto i te take: te manako iora aia e kare a Maui e kite maira iaia, te kite katoa a Ro e ka kanga a Māui iaia. Kua pipini iora a Ro, ei reira a Māui e tarotaro iora, tera taua tarotaro



E Ro e, tino rau e

Kua motukia te ara, kua motukia te ara

Ka naea atu au e-ka naea atu au e

Kia rongo a Ro, kua kata aia, no te mea kua kite aia te kite mai ra a Māui iaia. Kua aere mai aia-e-runga' o i te ara, kua aere raua, e, kia tae atura ki tetai ngai kua tuatua atura a Māui kia Ro, Ka tupaupau o taua upoko, ko toou ka omai noku, ko taku ka ooatu noou." Kare a Ro e akatika, kare aia e pa i tona upoko, te kie nei aia e ka kanga a Maui iaia, te karanga atura aia kia Māui, “E Māui e, kare e rauka toku i te kiriti." Ei reira a Māui kua kiriti i tona upoko. Kia kite a Ro i teia angaanga na Māui kua raungara iora aia. Na, kua aere raua, aere, aere, e, kia tae ki tetai ngai kua kiriti a Māui i te uopko a Ro kua paoo ki runga i toona poo-kaki kua titiri atura i te kopapa o Ro ki te pae rangi-ko te mate' nga tena o taua Ro.

Kake atura a Māui ki te Rangi, e kia kite mai ra te tini atua iaia i tona anaanga mai kua tuke aia ei reira kua tou ei i te tou, tera taua

tou na ratou :

Nini-o-o-re; Nini-o-o-re, Tavatava

Ki te aka-ipo anga-Auriki-toma e
Ka tou-te-tou e ka tou-te-tou e

Ei reira kua tou ei a Māui i tana :

Tukirua oki ana teia

Ma te rongo na te atua

Ma te tangata, ma te maire e tu i Ara-akaao.
Tukirua ra akarii

Tena ka aaki atu ei

Ko Rongo-ma-tane tei runangia e.

Kia rongo te atua tini i te vananga tou a Māui te tuatua iora ratou, "O, e tangata a Māui kare oki i te akavarevare ia.

Ko teia Ina e vanangaia nei, ko te Ina teia mei te rangi mai, ko tana angaanga i rave ki te ao nei, e peipei tiporo, e ai, e raranga moenga, e ta kupenga e te tutu-anga. Ko tana ika i arataki mai e Koriro (a'a) e ko te ika teia ta Māui i ii ki te matau, e te vai rai taua ika ki runga i te rangi.



Extract from Maui Legend collected by Stephen Savage, dictated by More-Taunga-o-te-tini (Tamuera Terei).

[We substitute here Mr. Savage's version of this strange legend, as it is more complete than that in Dr. Wyatt Gill's collection.

Avaiki in this connection must be distinguished from that Avaiki which has been applied as a name to many lands, e.g.: the Fatherland. Savai'i of Samoa, Tahiti, the Hawaiian islands, New Zealand, and other places. Here it is used for the nether-world. In the many stories connected with Maui (both the Solarhero and the Navigator), only one reference to this very peculiar legend connecting him with Roe (or Rohe) is known, and that was collected by the late Mr. A. Shand, from the Moriori of the Chatham Islands.-See " Journal Polynesian Society," Vol. III., p. 91, and the following from the same volume, p. 125:— "After this Rohe-Maui's wife-spoke disparagingly of him concerning his ugly face. Maui said he would give his face to Rohe and she should give hers


to him. They spoke thus, and then Maui bewitched and killed Rohe. After this her spirit returned and killed him ..." Page 126:-" They changed faces because Rohe was likened to the rays of the Sun, whose sister she was and her beauty was like the Sun's rays.

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This legend has undoubtedly to do with the ancient Māui, sun-beater, fireobtainer, &c., and not with Maui the navigator and discoverer. The Maoris of New Zealand do not appear to know this legend, and the reason why it is known both to Morioris and Rarotongans is, probably, due to the fact that one of the original canoes that brought some of the early settlers to the Chatham Islands came from Rarotonga (for which see "Journal Polynesian Society," Vol. XXIII., p. 76).

We have yet to discover the significance of this incident in the life of Maui and Roe; it is obviously extremely ancient, and is probably, when taken in conjunction with the Moriori accounts-part of which is quoted above-an astronomical myth.-EDITOR.]

[This part of the legend of Maui is very old. More-taunga tells me that it was on account of the early Missionaries forbidding the teaching of the ancient folklore that he was unable to learn the whole story. His father was a young man when the Missionaries arrived at Rarotonga, but he had already been initiated into the teachings of the priest-craft, but that when he became converted to the religion of the white man, he was taught that it was wrong to teach the children anything that had any connection with the ancient history; in spite of this his father had secretly taught him a great deal of the ancient legends; the portion given hereunder is what he remembered of this special part of the story.S. SAVAGE.]

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T came to a certain time when the gods Tongaiti, Tangaroa, Ruenuku, Tane, Tu, Rena, Rongo-ma-tane, Rongo, and many other gods of the heavens, discussed the question of sending for Maui who was living at Avaiki (the nether world). They at last decided on sending a messenger, and, after a time, selected Ro (also known as Roe) who was sent to fetch Māui. Ro descended to Avaiki. Māui saw Ro. He knew that Ro had come to fetch him. Māui therefore said to Ro, "What have you come for?" Ro replied, "I have been sent by the gods in the heavens to fetch you--they say you must come up above." "Very well," said Māui, "I knew that, you go ahead-I will follow." Ro then said, "You, O Sir, go first, I will follow behind." Māui then exclaimed, "No, you shall go first, I will follow behind."

Ro went on ahead--Māui followed on behind-thus they left Avaiki. Whilst they were coming along the road, Ro suddenly ran and hid in the trees-under the very roots thereof (tap-root). Ro thought that she would not be seen by Maui. Ro also knew that Maui intended to do some mischief—therefore she hid. Maui then chanted this spell (or song):

O Ro O! of the tribe of tens of thousands

The way has been cut off-the path has ended

By which way shall I go-where shall I next step

O Ro O! thou artful one-now where is Ina

The goddess daughter of Tangaroa.

When Ro heard this she laughed, for she knew that Maui could see her. She therefore came out on to the road and they proceeded on their way. They walked on for some distance until they came to a certain place, when Māui said to Ro, "Let us exchange heads." Ro would not consent-did not want to give her head, she knew that Maui intended to do her mischief. She said to Māui, "O Māui my head cannot be removed." Māui then took off his head, and when Ro saw this she became sorely afraid. They walked on again for a long distance when Māui removed Ro's head and stuck it on his own body, he then threw the body of Ro to the side of the heavens-thus perished Ro.

Maui now ascended up to the heavens, and when the host of gods saw him coming they saw that he was changed, they then recited this chant:-

"Mauled and maltreated ripped and torn-
Come to the initiation to the cult of the shades,
Auriki-toma now disclose it-Now disclose-
In prophetic vein, prophecy."

Then Maui recited his (disclosure) prophecy.

Twice the challenge was uttered

By the will of the gods

Through the medium of man

Disclosed from the sacred maire tree

That stands on the sacred (marae) Ara-akaao.

Therefore I will disclose it

T'was Rongo-ma-tane; who shall bind it on."

When the gods heard this disclosure or prediction uttered by Maui they exclaimed one to the other: "Oh Maui is a man who cannot be fooled."

The Ina mentioned in this story was the Ina who came from the heavens and taught certain games to men, such as juggling with tiporo (Citrus fruit), etc., and taught mat plaiting, net making, and beating out tapa cloth. She led a fish with her when she came, named the Koriro (also known as the a'a), which from description must be a species of conger eel. This was the monster that Maui fished up with his hook. That fish is now in the heavens.*

*We suggest that this 'fish' is the Mango-roa-i-ata known to the Maoris of New Zealand- -one of the names for the Milky Way.-EDITOR.

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