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would be in the latter dialect Wheatu, which is, in other dialects, Featu. One of these accounts names, the original discoverer of the island as Iku, the other Huku, and the first would be in the Manihiki dialect, Hiku-a ligitimate change of 'i' to 'u' common all over Polynesia. The Manihiki people have retained theh,' whilst the Rarotongans have lost it.

The probability is that Huku was really the first discoverer of the island, and the adventures of the Māui family are merely localized traditions of events which occurred in Indonesia, for by the best genealogies the Maui family flourished when the Polynesians were still living in Indonesia.

The account given in the translation below as to the migration of Toa and Tapaeru, from whom the present people claim descent, is very peculiar in the connection between Toa and his daughters, which is very unlike a Polynesian tradition, for they were very particular as to incest, and it would seem to imply that no women except Tapaeru formed part of the migration-an unlikely story we think. The parts shown in square brackets [] below, are added. from Aporo's and another narrative.]

The translation follows:


THE first man to discover Rakahanga was Huku; the reason of his voyage was to fish ātu (bonito fish). He discovered a large formation of rock growing up in the sea. This was his saying thereat:"Huku looks.down and saw 'twas the first formation of rock."

After this Huku returned to Rarotonga, because he was a Rarotongan man.

Huku returned hither (to Rakahanga) a second time; he looked down at the rock and it had moved upwards. He then returned to Rarotonga, naming his canoe Tapuaua.'


Then came (whilst Huku was away) Māui-mua (the elder), Māuiroto (the middle one), and Maui-potiki (the youngest). [They had only one canoe between them; they found that rock; they found only a reef, no dry land.] It is said that Māui-potiki went to visit the woman Hina-i-te-papa (Hina-of-the-foundation, or rock), who dwelt down below. So Maui went there; then called out to have some maroro (flying-fish) bait sent down; Maui-mua wished for a shark (for bait), but the maroro was sent down, whilst Māui-roto said: "Send down a urua (a fish) and a puroro (coconut spathe); a āoā (coconut embryo), and a bundle of raupuka (puka leaf) to fasten to this rock."

Then Maui-mua let down his fish-hook; and the fish took the bait, and he recited as follows:

Māui-roto, Māui-muri,* guess then the name
Of my fish. What is it?

Māui-muri (Māui-the-last) is the same as Maui-potiki.

Māui-roto was in doubt as to the answer, but Maui-muri understood and therefore said :

Thy filthy fish is a Haha-shark. Haul it up! When it came to the surface it was truly seen to be a shark.

Then Māui-roto let down his hook, which was taken by a fish, and then he recited this, saying::

Māui-mua, Māui-muri, guess the name

Of my fish. What is it?

Māui-mua could not guess, but Maui-muri knew at once, so he


Thy filthy fish is a Haka-urua. Haul it up!

On reaching the surface it turned out to be an Urua.
Now Maui-potiki said, "You two have had your chance, let me
He then let down his hook; his bait was puroro (coconut
spathe) and iō (? aōa) (coconut embryo) wrapped up in a puka leaf
bundle. He so let his line down that the said woman should see it,
and she fastened it on to the coral; Maui-potiki began to haul up,

Māui-mua, Māui-roto, guess the name
Of my fish. What is it?

Māui-mua said:

Your filthy fish is a Haka-kakahi. Haul it up!

Māui-muri again asked:

Māui-mua, Māui-roto, guess the name

Of my fish. What is it?

Māui-mua again replied:—

Haul it up!

Your filthy fish is a Haka-kakahi. When it drew near the surface, the sea was agitated, and on appearing above the surface, it was seen to be the land, and Māui-muri sprung on to the rocks. Māui-mua and Māui-roto in their canoe were drifted ashore, the canoe split up [in the breaking waves on the land] and all was lost [they were both drowned]. Their canoe was named Pipi-ma-hakohako.' [After naming the island Manahiki, Māui went to look over the land; his only food was fish; the rain from the skies was his drink.] Then Maui sung his song::

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The sea was churned

To an angry seething mass,
Then up-up came the land-
I, Maui, severed Manihiki-
Severed it from Rakahanga,
And the sea was churned

To an angry seething mass.

Maui now went to have a look at the land; there stood an earthen

house; Maui asked, "Who are you?" "We are a house of tupuas!"

(demons, spirits.) There were eighty of them that Māui saw in the house of earth. He heard (also) the voices of men within, for there were 200 people in that said earthen house. Then he sang :

Then was it uplifted,

(Refrain)-E Kupekupe tika, kupekupe ara.'

Rakahanga was cut up,

And then was seen,

A! an earthen house,
A! indeed was it full,
They were subdued,
Two hundred in number,
Were driven off by Maui.
And then Maui moved on,
And like a spade he trod
So Maui flew

To tread the ground at Paahi.
Then Maui flew,

A he flew to the heavens.

Floods of rain beat down,

And the winds they blew,
The lightning flashed,
The thunder rumbled

With the winds

The heavens overcame it.

After this was the third of Huku's visits: he chased Maui [with anger, who fled to the other side of the island, and when Huku followed him he fled to Tumukau. Again Māui fled on Huku's arrival to Paki, where the former found the latter had trodden on (and spoilt) all the land. From there Maui ascended into heaven, and was never seen there again; at which time Manihiki island was separated off from Rakahanga, and then Huku dwelt on his land]. After this Huku again returned to Rarotonga, because the land was hā (desert), no coconuts had yet been planted. [At this time came Featu to the island.]

Then Huku made another voyage to the island, in his canoe named 'Hotu-rangaranga'; he brought with him some coconuts, which he planted, the first of which was Huru-avatea, (then) Tuki-vai-raro, Mata-hare-tai, Tapuaua, Tohua-o-te-kai, Nitau-ki-raro, Tiro-vahanga and Kai-akuaku f-then was it seen the land was fat (or rich in soil).

Huku again returned to Rarotonga, and when the wind turned to the north-west, he thought: "May be the coconut at Arai-ava is shaking in the wind.”

Now Featu had heard, and wondered where the fellow had seen (discovered) the land. So he launched his canoe saying, “Where is

*The refrain follows each line.

†These are the names of the coconut trees.

that land that was discovered," and he eventually arrived at Manihiki : there were no coconuts, nothing but a (bare) plain. He was standing there at Tarakite, and from there saw another island. He went off to examine it and found Rakahanga. He looked and saw the coconuts waving, so he said, "This is the land that the fellow discovered." He then went over to the other side, to Omoka, and returned on to the land (? Manihiki) and on to the bare, flat rock [where he commenced to break out a canoe passage]. He lived on fish whilst he was engaged in breaking out a canoe passage through the reef. Here is his song:Come along, come along, batter away,

Come along Featu,

Batter it out, and go to Rakahanga

Hammer out Tokurua, O thou!

Beat down the rock at Ava-nui,

Batter it, break it, smash it up small,

Featu is here, batter it,

Stay at Tarakite, batter it,

Tread upon it, batter it.

The wind is in the south,

Beat it down, smash it up small,
In the midst of the ocean,
Batter the face of Featu,

Hammer the head of Rakahanga,

Smash out the passage at Omoka,

Batter and hammer away without ceasing.

Featu's canoe was named ' 'Paparinga-tai!

Now Huku at Rarotonga had a dream (a premonition of something happening at his island) so he returned to Manihiki, where he met Featu. Said Huku: "Who brought you to my island? We shall quarrel over my island." Featu replied: "I have not been inside the island, I am merely living on the reef, and am engaged in making a canoe-passage for you [into the lagoon]. Huku replied to him: "Do not do so, lest the sharks should find their way into the lagoon.” Featu then said: "Well, I will remain on the shore." The reason Huku did not want him to go inland was lest he should pull up the coconuts he had planted. So Fetu remained by the sea side. Another account says Huku drove him away.

Huku returned to Rarotonga, thinking to himself, "There are two to quarrel on my island." [When Toa heard Huku's description of the island he wished to go there.] Then Huku sent Toa and his wife Tapaeru to take care of the land. Their canoe was named 'Reiapata.' It is said that she (was called) Tapaeru-taki-etu, a daughter of one of Hiro's sons from Havaiki, and that she was a sister of Hukus, Toa being his brother-in-law. (After Toa had arrived at the island) he had children; Kae, a girl, was the first, then Poe, then Naunau, then Nanamu the last, all girls.

(Then follows the history of Toa's connections with his various daughters, not of much interest, nor can a genealogical table be made from the information given to aid us in determining how long these people have been living in Manihiki. But if the Hiro mentioned above is the well-known voyager of that name, then we can get an approximation to the period, for Hiro was a contemporary of Tangiia of Rarotonga, and he lived 26 generations back from the year 1900, or about A.D. 1250. It is quite probable this Hiro is the voyager, for it was just at this period that many Polynesian families were migrating from Havaiki (Savai'i and Fiji) to Eastern Polynesia. Another account says that one of Toa's sons, Ngaro-taramaunga, built a canoe and migrated to the Tokerau group.)

Aporo, in his account of the same incidents mentioned above (though not nearly so fully), goes on to describe the local gods thus:

There are no gods of their own in these two islands; their gods were stolen from Utuone by Ngaro-purui and Ngaru-vaaroto; Patukare was the guardian of the gods, whose names were Te Puarenga and Te Uru-renga, whilst another god named Ikaera drifted ashore on to the island. Te Puarenga is at Tau-unu at the marae named Te Pouhiteru; Ikaara (sic) is at Tukao at the marae named Marae-okoroa ; Te Uru-renga is at Rakahanga, and Variu is the name of his marae. These were the places where the idols were worshipped-in this way: Food and fish were made tapu, and taken to the marae, and there they performed their devotions, and when finished the food was distributed to the people.

They had many minor gods, such as fish; for a certain class of people would not eat shark, turtle, te-umu-tangaroa, marauoa, ueue, totara, pui (sea-snake) or koura (cray fish). Some would not eat birds such as the kotoa or the kaveu. Another species of gods were stones; they would place them in their girdles when going out to sea or to war, or when they slept. Another custom they had of making a god of a dead man. They used to take the head, teeth, nails, bones, and hair, after death. The bones of the arikis were given to the warriors, and his family.

After any man had died, from the second until the fifth night they took food for the deceased and hoped then to upraise him to life. This is one of the 'upraisings':

E ara! e tu ki runga
Tera mai to mango
E te ika, kia kai koe.

Arise! stand upright!

Here is thy shark

And fish, that thou mayest eat.

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