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Smyth, T. Exeter, bookseller.

Spofforth, R. jun. Howden, Yorkshire, scrivener.
Stephenson, C. V. Liverpool, linen-draper.
Symonds, N. W. Crutched Friars, merchant.
Thompson, J. Birmingham, victualler.
Thropp, J. Tooley-street, victualler.

Todd, E. Charlton, Lancashire, cotton spinner. Tode, C. P. Regent-street, St James's, watchmaker.

Vankempen, P. Wapping-wall, brewer.
Warnford, F. Wakefield, tea-dealer.

Waterhouse, C. Bridgnorth, druggist.

Wells, T. Union-street, Southwark, hat-manufac


Whitaker, J. St Paul's Church-yard, music-seller.
Whitbread, W. South-end, linen-draper.
White, W. B. Strand, linen-draper.

Willcox, O. Tottenham court-road, butcher.
Williams, E. Fenchurch-street, wine-merchant.
Wilson, R. Turnham green, draper.

Wilson, R. Tooley-street, victualler.
Wylde, J. Macclesfield, victualler.

ALPHABETICAL LIST of SCOTCH BANKRUPTCIES and DIVIDENDS, announced June 1824; extracted from the Edinburgh Gazette.


Air, William, merchant in Coldstream.

Bell, James, fish-merchant in Perth.
Grant, Lewis, bookseller in Inverness.
Gray, John, grain-merchant, corn-merchant, and
miller, residing at Comedy, Barony Parish of

Gutzmer, Anthony Henry, founder, Leith Walk.
Harper, Alex. shawl-manufacturer in Kilmarnock.
Huie, James Leith, bookseller and publisher in

Lee & Myers, jewellers, auctioneers, and generalagents in Glasgow.

Liddel, Robert, grocer, brewer, and baker, at Blantyre Toll

M'Donald, John Hall, merchant in Falkirk. M'Lean, Wm. & Sons, late merchants in Edinburgh.

Paul, William & James, distillers and merchants in Stirling.

Taylor, Patrick, spirit-dealer in Auctermuchty.

Thomson & Goodsir, muslin and lace-merchants in Edinburgh.

Urquhart, George, brewer and distiller at Inver


Wilson, Thomas, vintner at Bealtock Bridge.


Anderson, William, late tanner in Glasgow; by
Robert Blaikie, merchant there.
Finlay, Thomas, late builder in Elie, Fife; by D.
S. Threshie, W.S. Edinburgh.

Knox, John & Sons, cotton-yarn merchants in Glasgow; by D. Cuthbertson, accountant there.

Rae, John, candle-maker in Edinburgh; by W. Sanderson, merchant there.

Ramsay, Smith, Graham, & Co. merchants in

Glasgow; by Robert Blaikie, merchant there. Watt, Thomas, & Co. merchants and warehousemen in Glasgow; by James Aitken, merchant there.



It is with feelings of deep regret that we announce the decease of this amiable and distinguished nobleman, who died at his house in London, on Saturday the 19th June, after a protracted illness, which came to a sudden termination.

His Lordship entered in carly life into the army, and had the honour of serving for some years in the Tenth, when that regiment was under the command of his present Majesty. He afterwards raised a corps of fencibles, of which he continued in command as long as that description of force was judged necessary for the defence of the kingdom. He likewise represented the borough of Saltash in Parliament for several sessions, during which he was one of the most zealous and disinterested supporters of the principles of Mr Pitt.

But it is from Lord Macdonald's patriotic labours for the improvement of his vast estates in the Hebrides, that an estimate of his character is to be formed. Convinced that the first step towards improvement is to render a country accessible, his Lordship made, with the assistance of Government, upwards of 100 miles of public road, on his own property, in the islands of Skye and North Uist; subscribed largely towards the formation of roads in districts leading to those islands, and built two handsome piers at Kyle


akin and Portree; not only to promote the trade of those villages, but generally as a protection to shipping in a tempestuous sea. As an inducement to himself and his successors to live on their own estates, he began a magnificent castle at Armidale, according to a design by Gillespie, and carried it on so far towards a completion, and embellished it with so much taste, that it is now one of the greatest ornaments of the north. His Lordship's constant endeavours also to improve the manufacture of kelp, and introduce the culture of hemp, to drain the marshes and cultivate wastes, to erect churches, mills, and bridges, and, by every means, to provide food and employment for the lower orders, will cause his memory to be long cherished in the hearts of a grateful population.

While other landowners were banishing the people from their properties, in order to introduce sheep, it was Lord Macdonald's boast, that of a population of 24,000, not a man had been compelled to emigrate from his; and, to add but one remarkable circumstance more to this short sketch, such was his kindness to his tenantry, that, notwithstanding their numbers, and the ge neral distress for the last few years, not one had his goods sequestrated from the time his Lordship came to his estates.



1824. Jan. 7. At Nagpore, the Lady of Andrew Ross, Esq. Assistant-Surgeon 2d battalion 18th regiment, a son.

May 24. In Coates Crescent, Edinburgh, Mrs George Forbes, a daughter.

28. At Stewartfield, Mrs Veitch, a son. -At North Berwick, the Lady of Major-General Dalrymple, a son.

May. 29. At Woolwich, the Lady of Lieutenant William Cochrane Anderson, royal horse artillery, a daughter.

-At Coates Crescent, Edinburgh, the Lady of Captain Aytoun, R. A., a son.

30. At Penchrise, Mrs Pott, a son. -At Forge Lodge, Dumfries-shire, the Lady of Pulteney Mein, Esq. a daughter.

June 2. At Queen-Street, Edinburgh, the Lady of E. W. H. Schenley, Esq. a daughter.

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-At 31, Howe-Street, Edinburgh, the Lady of John Hay, Esq. of the India Company's service, a daughter.

-At Croydon Farm, the Lady of John Dingwall of Brucklay, Esq. a daughter.

9. At Links Place, Leith, Mrs Donaldson, a son. 10. The Lady of Warren Hastings Sands, Esq. W. S. a son.

-Mrs Jolly, 20, Windsor-Street, Edinburgh, a daughter.

11. At Greenhead, Glasgow, the Lady of Capt. T. D. Stewart, of the Bengal cavalry, a son.

12. At Rosebank, the Lady of Kenneth Macleay of Newmore, Esq. a daughter.

13. At Park House, Kent, the Lady of Sir Henry R. Calder, Bart., a son.

16. At Edinburgh, Mrs Borthwick, 85, GeorgeStreet, a son.

17. At Edinburgh, Mrs William Snell, a daugh


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- Philip Anglin, Esq. M.D. of the island of Jamaica, to Catharine Margaret, eldest daughter of the late Colonel John Robertson.

23. At Banff, George Craigie, Esq. M.D. of the Bengal medical service, to Jane, only daughter of John Wilson, Esq.

June 1. At París, the Prince Polignac, to Madame le Marquise de Choiseul, widow of the Marquis de Choiseul, and niece to Lord Rancliffe.

-At Burntsfield Place, Edinburgh, William Bowden, Esq. of Hull, to Margaret Sawers, eldest daughter of Archibald Anderson, Esq.

At Bo'ness, Islay Burns, Esq. surveyor of his Majesty's Customs, to Janet, third daughter of the late Andrew Milne, Esq. merchant there.

-At Drumpellier, Lieut. John Hay, R. N. to Marion, eldest daughter of David Carrick Buchanan, Esq. of Drumpellier.

-At the house of Andrew Wauchope, Esq. Salisbury Road, Edinburgh, Dr James Kellie, physician in Dunbar, to Mary, second daughter of the late Mr George Wauchope.

2. At Gayfield Square, Edinburgh, David Arthur Davies, Esq. surgeon, Llanally, to Spencer Boyd, eldest daughter of Andrew Sievwright, Esq. merchant, Edinburgh.

7. At Tunbridge Wells, William Thomas Thornton, Esq. to Hannah Isabella Cornelia, eldest daughter of the late Colonel Halket Craigie of Hallhill, in the county of Fife.

-Af St George's, Hanover Square, London, the Hon. Captain W. L. Fitzgerald, De Roos, of the 1st regiment of life guards, to Lady Georgiana Lennox, daughter of the Duke of Richmond.

8. At Glasgow, John Graham, Esq. of Nether Glenny, to Isabella, second daughter of James Stiven, Esq. Glasgow.

June 9. At Windsor Street, Leith-Walk, Mr John Connell, merchant, to Miss Elizabeth Johnson.

11. At Warriston Crescent, Edinburgh, David Canning, Esq. surgeon, to Mary Stewart, eldest daughter of John Reid, Esq.

12. At Edinburgh, A. F. Smith, Esq. surgeon, Kirkaldy, to Mary Ann, daughter of James Burn, Esq. manufacturer, Edinburgh.

11. At Glasgow, Robert Mitford Peacock, Esq. eldest son of Robert Peacock, Esq. of Solsgirth House, late of Calthorpe Hall, Yorkshire, to Mary, third daughter of Mr John M'Callum, wine-merchant, Glasgow.

-At Glasgow, Mr Thomas Young, merchant, to Catharine, second daughter of Mr John M'Callum, wine merchant, Glasgow.

15. At Paisley, Mr James Allan, jun. merchant, Glasgow, to Janet, second daughter of Thomas Leishman, of Oakshaw, Esq.

-At Pilrig-Street, Edinburgh, Robert Blackie, Esq. to Eliza, daughter of the late Burridge Pur vis, Esq. of Glassmount.

-At the Haining, Archibald Douglas, Esq. son of Archibald Douglas, Feq. of Adderstone, to Margaret Violetta, daughter of the late Mark Pringle, Esq. of Clifton.

16. At Craighead, Archibald Smith, Esq. merchant, Glasgow, to Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas M'Call, Esq. of Craighead.

17. At the Collegiate Church, Manchester, Charles Grant, Esq. of Barwood House, near Bury, to Mary Ann, only daughter of Thomas Worthington, Esq. of Sharson Hall, Cheshire.

19. At St George's Church, Hanover Square, London, Captain Fox, son of Lord Holland, to Miss Mary Fitzelarence.

21. At Park Place, Edinburgh, the Right Hon. the Earl of Leven and Melville, to Elizabeth Ann Campbell, second daughter of the Hon. Lord Succoth.

-At Edinburgh, Munro Ross, Esq. of Rosshill, to Grace, youngest daughter of the late John Cuming, Esq.

22. At Glasgow, Thomas Campbell, Esq. to Agnes, second daughter of Kirkman Finlay, Esq. of Castle Toward.

- At Woodhill, Thomas Bannerman, Esq. to Jane, second daughter of George Hogarth, junior, Esq. of Woodhill.


1824. Jan. 12. At Madras, James Waddell, Esq. 19. At Batavia, Henry Band, son of the late Mr Henry Band, merchant in Leith.

March 14. At Montreal, suddenly, of asphyxia, the Rev. T. Hill. This gentleman came to this country last fall from Edinburgh, and being a regularly educated and ordained minister of that body of Christians known by the name of Presbyterians, had been preaching in the church of St Peter's Street in Montreal, ever since, as assistant to the Rev. Mr Easton. After morning service on Sunday, and performing his functions as usual, he returned to his lodgings, and had just seated himself, when he fell on the floor lifeless.

25. At Islington Pen, St Andrew's, Jamaica, at. an advanced age, the Hon. James Stewart Custos, and late one of the representatives in the Hon. House of Assembly for that parish; also a Judge in the Supreme Court of Judicature, and AuditorGeneral and Surveyor of the parish revenues.

May 6. At Foveran House, Aberdeenshire, John Robertson, Esq. of Foveran.

15. At Norham, Lieutenant Cornelius Murray, of the 101st regiment, son of the late Daniel Murray, Esq. of Overdurdie and Christianbank, aged thirty-three.

18. At Islington, in his 31st year, the Rev. George Strahan, D.D. Prebendary of Rochester, Rector of Kingsdown, Kent, and Vicar of Islington. Dr S. was the second of the three sons of the late eminent printer, William Strahan, Esq. M. P. and elder brother to Andrew Strahan, Esq. the present printer to the King, and many years M. P.

19. At Bervie, Dr Robert Napier.

22. At Leith, Mr Alex. Paterson, ironmonger, (late of Stirling.)

-John Parry, Esq. Vice Warden of the Stannaries for Devonshire, and formerly proprietor of the London Courier.

Mrs Elizabeth Sinclair, relict of the late John,


Mackenzie, Esq. of Jamaica, and sister of the late
Sir Alexander Sinclair, of Dunbeath, Bart.

May 22. At Dysart, Mrs Grace Reddie, relict of
Lieut. James Black, R. N.

23. At Alloa, Captain Robert Henderson. - At Florence, William Crosbie, Esq. his Majesty's Secretary of Legation at the Court of Tuscany.

25. At Ayr, Mrs Crawford, senior of Ardmillan.

26. At Edinburgh, Miss Janet Hutton, eldest daughter of the late John Hutton, Esq. merchant in Edinburgh.

-In East Reech, Taunton, Mr John Taylor, in the 109th year of his age. He was a butcher, and regularly attended the markets of Taunton, Wellington, and Wyviliscombe, upwards of sixty years. He has left two sons, the eldest of whom is 87, and the youngest 64.

-At Montcallier, near Turin, Capel Lofft, Esq. 27. In Lower-Brook Street, London, Mrs Rattray, widow of the late Colonel John Rattray, of Craighall, Perthshire.

28. At his seat, Hawkstone, Salop, Sir John Hill, Bart. in the 84th year of his age.

At Banff, Mrs Gordon, widow of the Rev. Abercromby Gordon, minister of Banff.

--At London, John Locke, M.D. late of Glasgow.

29. At the Lairg Cottage, near Tain, Lieutenant J. P. Gordon, half-pay 71st regiment.

-At his house in Forth-Street, Edinburgh, David Kinnear, Esq. banker.

At Hastings, in Sussex, Robert Alexander Paterson Wallace, Esq. only son of the deceased Major Robert Wallace, of the 17th foot, and grandson of the late Alexander Wallace, Esq. banker in Edinburgh.

50. At Square Point of Crossmichael, William Rae, Esq. fate of Dunjarg, aged 85 years.

-At Coats House, Major-General Nicholas Carregie, of the Hon. East-India Company's Bengal establishment.

31. At Bath, the Lady of Sir George Abercromby Robinson, Bart.

-At Bilbow, parish of Troqueer, Miss Eleanor Lidderdale, daughter of the late Robertson Lidderdale, Esq. of Castlemilk.

- At Star Bank, Fife, Mr Thomas Erskine Pattullo, aged 19, third son of Robert Pattullo, Esq,

June 1. At his house in Queen-Street, Edinburgh, Alexander Wylie, doctor of medicine.

2. At Edinburgh, Samuel Watson, Esq. solicitor at law.

At Fintry, Stirlingshire, Janet Waters, aged 100. She had 13 children, 53 grand children, and 40 great-grand-children-total, 106. Eight of her children died in infancy; of course only five of her children have any offspring.

3. At Fyvie, the Hon. Mrs Gordon, relict of the late General the Hon. William Gordon of Fyvie, in the 81st year of her age.

- At Edinburgh, Daniel Ramsay, of Falla, aged 64 years.

4. At Edinburgh, Mrs Abercrombie, widow of the late Rev. George Abercrombie, one of the ministers of Aberdeen.

5. At Lauder, Alexander Dawson, Esq. surgeon, Chief Magistrate of the burgh of Lauder.

- At Bogton, Cathcart, Miss Pagan of Bogton, aged 66 years.

-In Mortimer Street, Cavendish Square, London, Lieut.-General Simon Fairley, aged 78.

6. At Kirkconnel manse, in the 48th year of her age, Mrs Elizabeth M'Lean, wife of the Rev. James Richardson, minister of that parish.

-At Edinburgh, Mrs Jean Johnston, wife of William Johnston, Esq. of Lathrisk, and only surviving daughter of Mr S. Douglas.

7. At his house in York Place, Edinburgh, John Blackwell, Esq. advocate.

8. At Malvern, Licut.-Colonel Hugh Houstoun.
9. In South Audley Street, London, Thomas
Chevalier, Esq. surgeon extraordinary to the King,
and Professor of Anatomy and Surgery to the
Royal College of Surgeons in London."

At Kirkwall, in Orkney, the Rev. Robert
Yule, minister of the Gospel there.

10. At Rankeilour House, Mrs Mary Maitland,


widow of the late Charles Maitland, Esq. younger
of Rankeilour.

June 11. At Edinburgh, Thomas Ferguson, Esq.
of Baledmund, in the 23d year of his age.

-At Stirling, the Rev. Archibald Bruce, one of the ministers of that parish.

15. At Dumfries, Mr James Gibson, merchant.
-At Edinburgh, in the 50th year of his age,
Mr James Souter, slater to his Majesty.

-At his house, Blythswood Place, Glasgow,
William Monteith, Esq.,

14. At Waulkmills of Letham, Mr Patrick Stir-
ling, aged 82 years.

At Thurso, Mrs Pringle, wife of Mr Robert
Pringle, collector of Excise.

16. At Weymouth, in his 30th year, George
Mellis, Esq. of Perthshire, having arrived in Eng-
land from Calcutta, in the Kingston, only twelve
days before.

At 2, Arniston Place, Major Colin Campbell, of Strachur.

17. At his residence in Lower Grosvenor Street, London, the Right Hon. Lord Henry Thomas Howard Molyneux Howard, Deputy Earl Marshal of England, and brother to his Grace the Duke of Norfolk. His Lordship was a Protestant. He represented the city of Gloucester in several Parliaments, and sat in the present Parliament for Steyning.

19. At her residence, No. 13, Seymour Place, Little Chelsea, Donna Maria Theresa del Riego y Riego, widow of General Don Rafael del Riego y Riego.

20. At Edinburgh, Lieut. John Fraser, formerly of the 71st, thereafter of the 87th regiment of foot-Lieut. Fraser entered the 71st regiment at the youthful age of 16. He passed with approbation through the grades from private to officer in the short space of eight years. His signal bravery at the taking of the Cape of Good Hope induced the commanding officer to report him for an officer's commission; for he was one of a party of thirty, who, on that occasion, volunteered to storm a battery, and the only one of the party who survived (but not unwounded) the capture of it. The regiment went from the Cape upon the expedition to Buenos Ayres, in which country Mr Fraser did good service, although in the condition of a prisoner. This was reported by the then Colonel of the regiment, Colonel, afterwards Lieutenant-General Sir Denis Pack, to the Secretary of the Commander in Chief, in the following very handsome terms:"By his exemplary behaviour, when far in the interior of South America, he acquired such an ascendancy over a number of men, as to be ac knowledged by them as their commanding officer; and by his manner throughout, materially tended to uphold the allegiance they have shewn; and was such as to induce the Spaniards to offer him a large sum and a commission in their service." Mr Fraser was with the same distinguished corps, and was again wounded, when it formed part of the army under General Sir John Moore, and at the glorious epoch of Vimeira and Waterloo.When the peace came he was put upon half pay, and had engaged successfully in business. But the meed of just praise is of perilous attainment. His arduous military duties had planted the seeds of early dissolution in a frame both originally robust, and fortified by sober habits. His premature death, at the age of forty-two, is to be traced to that cause; while it will fong be deplored by all those who knew him in civil life, as having deprived society of a valuable man, and his wife and numerous infant family of a most affectionate and exemplary husband and father.

Lately. At París, General John Murray, aged 86. He had served his Majesty 60 years in different parts of the world, and was twelve years a prisoner in France under Napoleon's Government. His eldest son, Major-General Murray, was late Governor of Demerara.

At Vienna, the Austrian Finance Minister, Count Von Stadion.

In Rutland Street, Cheltenham, Sarah Pool, at the extraordinary age of 110 years.

- At Shalden Lodge, Hants, aged 45, Lieut. Colonel Arthur Johnston, late Assistant-Commandant at the Royal Military College, Farnham.

J. Ruthven & Son, Printers, Edinburgh.





AUGUST 1824.


State of the Latin Language from the termination of the first Punic War till the death of Sylla, (78, B. C.)

THE history of this noble form of speech naturally arranges itself into five periods or epochs: 1st, From the building of Rome till the Conquest of Magna Graecia, or rather, till the termination of the first Punic War: 2d, From the close of the first Punic War till the death of Sylla: 3d, From the demise of the Dictator till that of Augustus: 4th, From the death of Augustus till the age of the Antonines; and, 5th, From the age of the Antonines till the transference of the seat of the empire from Rome to Byzantium. It is of the second and most remarkable of these periods that we propose to exhibit a few characteristics. Every scholar knows that the conquest of Magna Graecia was followed by an almost instantaneous improvement in the structure, rythm, and harmony of the Latin language. The learned men of that colony were either carried to Rome as prisoners, or attracted thither by hopes of honour and advancement; while, on the other hand, a great number of Romans, allured by the delicious climate and high refinement of the south, speedily settled in the conquered province. In conformity with a maxim which regulated the policy of Rome, so long as her arms continued victorious, no pains were spared to effect a speedy and entire amalgamation of the victors and the vanquished. Circumstances, in the present case, were eminently favourable to the accomplishment of this wise object. Justly proud of their superiority in arms, the Romans were at the same time sensible of their vast deficiency in the arts which embellish life, and give splendour to martial achievement, and disdained not to become the pupils and scholars of those whom they had subdued. The Greek colonies in Italy had long maintained a generous rivalship with the mother country in genius and in art, in which, at the period of their conquest, they were little, if at all, inferior. In proof of which, it is sufficient to mention, that Plato visited Italy in order to make himself acquainted with the discoveries of Pythagoras, and converse with Archytas of Tarentum, and Timæus the Locrian; from whom the illustrious founder of the Academy derived no small portion of that sublime philosophy which he has bequeathed to us in his eloquent and immortal works*.

Audisse te, credo, Tubero, Platonem, Socrate mortuo, primum in Aegyptum discendi causa, post in Italiam et in Siciliam contendisse ut Pythagoræ inventa per. disceret ; eumque et cum Archyta Tarentino, et cum Timaeo Locro multum fuisse ; cumque eo tempore in his locis Pythagorae nomen vigeret, illum se et hominibus Pythagoreis, et studiis illis dedisse." Cicero de Republicâ, I. 10. ed. Ang. Maio, Item confer De Fin: v. 29.; Quaest. Tusc. I. 17.; De Senec. XII.; Lucan. X. 181. ; Val Max. VIII. 7. ext. 3.



By the fall of Tarentum, and the conquest of Sicily, which followed at a short interval, the Romans were, therefore, brought in direct contact with the philosophy and literature of Greece at the period when both had attained their maximum of expansion and improvement, and when five centuries of social existence had prepared their minds to become recipients of whatever was fitted to enlighten and refine. The most remarkable moral revolution recorded in the annals of mankind almost immediately ensued; and in nothing was that revolution more strikingly evinced than in the change that took place in the language. The first poets of Rome were natives of Magna Graecia; and though, after the conquest of their native country, they had to learn the language of their conquerors, the improvement which they effected must still be matter of surprise and astonishment. To satisfy his mind of the amount of this improvement, it is only necessary for the classical reader to compare the monuments of an elder date, preserved in the Monumenti degli Scipioni, or the Roma Antica, with the existing fragments of Livius Andronicus, Naevius, and Ennius, writers in whose hands the language passed from a rude, uncouth, semibarbarous dialect, incessantly varying and fluctuating, into a regular form, and assumed much of that severe and majestic dignity by which it was ever after characterized.

Still, however, many archaisms, which it was reserved for the writers of the Augustan age to remove, continued in use, and the language was deformed by the frequent recurrence of sesquipedalia verba, compounded on the analogy of the Greek, but hostile to the genius of the Latin, which reluctantly admits triplicate, and seldom or never quadruplicate combinations. These and other peculiarities we propose now to exemplify; and as some arrangement is convenient, we shall do so under the following heads:

1. WORDS.-The writers anterior to the time of Cicero employed a number of substantives which the Augustan authors generally rejected; such as anquinae, apludae, aqualis, aquula, axicia, bucoeda, bucco, bulga, bustirapus, capronae, capulum, carinarius, casteria, colluthea, conchita, conspicillum, cordolium, cuppes, dividia, estrix, fala, famigerator, flammearius, grallator, hamista, illex for exlex, lectisterniator, legirupa and legirupio, lenullus, a diminutive from leno, limbolarius, linteo, Lucas bos for elephantus, mando for helluo, mantellum, (whence the English word mantle,) mantisa, meddix, an Oscan word, equivalent to magistratus, mellinia, mosculus, a diminutive of mos, mulleus, ocris, offerumentum, petimen, perlecebra, petro, portisculus, proseda, sedentarius, statutus for procerus, struix, stultiloquentia, subulo, Summanus for Dis, suppromus, suras, sutela, tama, temetum, terginum, trico, vesperugo; cum multis aliis quae nunc perscribere longum est. In this enumeration we have omitted words applicable to certain parts of dress, to trades, and to objects of natural history, because, though not to be met with in compositions of the Augustan age, they are not properly to be considered as having fallen into desuetude from any amelioration of the language, but as having become unnecessary or meaningless by the change which time and fashion had introduced. The writers of this period also employed substantives in a sense in which they are not found in the works of their successors; as flagitium for flagitatio, hæres for dominus, labor for morbus, nugae for naenia; and introduced a great number of vocables, which are either Greek, or closely imitated from that language; as, architecton for architectus, batiola from Bário, gauluis from yaños, halophanta from ἁλοφάντης, horoenum from ὡραῖον, lepada from λεπὰς, miccotrogus from μικκός, and τρώγειν, pasceolus from φασκώλιον, pithecium from πιθήκιον, schoe num from σχοίνος, stalagmium from σταλαγμός, trapezita from τραπεζίτης. Compound words of prodigious length, and utterly abhorrent to the genius of the language, are likewise frequently to be met with, as argentientercbronides, damnigeruli, dentifrangibula, feritribaces, flagritribae, gerulifigulus, nucifrangibula, oculicrepidae, perenticidae, plagipatidae, subiculumfragri, and other combinations equally monstrous, in which Plautus particularly delights to indulge. In fact, the Umbrian baker appears to have taken a pleasure in sporting an occasional and notorious barbarism; at least we

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