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Fig. 1. Feeding a sick goose.

Herdsmen and poulterers treating sick animals and geese.

2. In the original, this figure shows more skill in the drawing than is usual in Egyptian sculpture.

3. Feeding an oryx.

4, 5. Treatment of goats. The foreleg is tied up to prevent the animal rising while the medicine is administered to it. 7. Forces a ball of medicated food, taken from the vase before him, into the ox's mouth.

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the poulterers bestowed the same care on the geese and fowls. animals of the desert they tamed or bred in the farmyard; and fined to oxen and sheep; it extended also to the oryx, and other they forced into their mouths. Their medical aid was not conand preparing for them whatever medicine they required, which ing them with proper food, which they gave them with the hand, shepherds. They took the utmost care of the animals, provid


Fig. 1. A scribe.

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British Museum-from Thebes.

2. Men bringing eggs in baskets. 3. One of the feeders of geese. 4. Table, on which are baskets containing eggs and flowers. 5. The scribe reading the account before the steward or master of the estate, written on a papyrus he holds in his hands. 6. Man bringing the goslings in baskets. 7. The feeders of the geese doing obeisance; others seated in an attitude of respect; and 8, bowing as he brings up the geese with their young, 9. A large flock of geese brought by others, 10, 11, 12.


And such was their attention to the habits of different animals, and the patient treatment of them, that the wildest and most timid were rendered so tame as to be driven, like the sheep and goats; and the wild geese and other birds were brought to the stewards, whenever an inventory was made of the live stock on the estate.

The pastors were a class apart from the agriculturists, and were held in disrepute, partly from the nature of their оссираtion, partly from the prejudices of the Egyptians against all herdsmen. But this did not extend to the farmers who bred cattle or sheep; it was confined to the poor people who kept them; and as if to show how degraded a class they were, they are represented, as at Beni Hassan and the tombs near the Pyramids, lame, or deformed, dirty, unshaven, and even of a ludicrous appearance; and often clad in dresses made of matting, similar in quality to the covering thrown over the backs of the oxen they are tending.


A deformed oxherd.

Tombs near the Pyramids.

They generally lived in sheds made of reeds, deriving a scanty nourishment from the humblest and coarsest food; but they were overlooked by other persons of a superior condition among the pastoral class. There were also overseers of the shepherds, who regulated everything respecting the stock-which were to graze in the field, which to be stall-fed; and their duty was also to give reports at certain periods to the scribes attached to the steward's office, who examined them preparatory to their being presented to the owner of the estate. In these nothing

was omitted; and every egg was noted in the account, and entered with the chickens and goslings. And in order to prevent


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Giving an account to two scribes of the stock on the estate. Before fig. 1 is the sachel, and above fig. 2 the box for holding writing implements and papyri. They are writing on boards: in their left hands are the inkstands with black and red ink.

any connivance, or a question respecting the accuracy of a report, two scribes received it from the superintendents at the same moment. Everything was done in writing. Bureaucratie was as consequential in Egypt as in modern Austria, or France; scribes were required on every occasion, to settle public or private questions; no bargain of consequence was made without the vouchure of a written document; and the sale of a small piece of land required sixteen witnesses. Either the Egyptians were great cheats, or a very cautious people-probably both; and they would have been in an agony of mind to see us so careless, and so duped in many of our railway and other speculations.

The shepherds on the estate were chosen by the steward, who ascertained their character and skill before they were appointed to their various duties; and Pharaoh in like manner commanded Joseph, who was superintendent" over all the land of Egypt," to select from among his brethren such as were skilful in the management of the flocks or herds, and "make them rulers over his cattle."

There was also the honorary office of "superintendent of the



military classes, who were called "superintendents of the cattle being held by persons of rank belonging to the priestly and the class of shepherds: it was a high and distinguished post, herds;" but this was very different from the duty of any one in

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Fig. 1. Herdsman giving an account to the scribe, 3.

2. Another doing obeisance to the master of the estate, or to the scribe. 4. Other herdsmen.

5. The driver of the cattle, carrying a rope in his hand.

British Museum-from Thebes.

6. Bowing and giving his report to the scribe, 7, over whom is the usual sachel, and two boxes.

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