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(From Dr. Isaac Burrow's Treatise on the Pope's Supremacy.)

"WHY is the opus operatum in sacraments taught to confer grace, but to breed a high opinion of the priest and all he doth?

To what end is the clogging religion by multiplication of ceremonies and formalities, but to amuse the people, and maintain in them a blind reverence towards the interpreters of the dark mysteries couched in them; and by seeming to encourage an exterior show of piety, or form of godliness, to gain reputation and advantage, whereby they might oppress the interior virtue and reality of it, as the Scribes and Pharisees did, although with less designs?

What doth all that pomp of religion serve for, but for ostentation of the dignity of those who administer it? It may be pretended for the honour of religion, but it really conduceth to the glory of the priesthood, who shine in those pageantries.

Any small power is apt to grow and spread itself; a spark of it will soon expand itself into a flame: it is very like to the grain of mustard-seed: see Matt. xiii. 31, 32. Encroaching,' as Plutarch saith, is an innate disease of potentacies.'

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Any pretence will serve to ground attempts of enlarging power, and none will be balked; for power is bold, enterprising, restless; it always watcheth, or often findeth, never passeth, opportunities of dilating itself.

None can resist or obstruct its growth without danger and manifold disadvantages: for as its adherents are deemed loyal and faithful, so its opposers are branded with the imputations of rebellion, contumacy, disloyalty; and not succeeding in their resistance, they will be undone.

. . . It is always on its march forward, and gaineth ground; for one encroachment doth countenance the next, and is alleged for a precedent to authorize or justify it.


Spiritual power especially is of a growing nature, and more especially that which deriveth from divine institution; for it hath a great awe upon the hearts and consciences of men, which engageth them to a firm and constant adherenee. It useth the most subtle arms, which it hath always ready, which needeth no time or cost to furnish, which cannot be extorted from its hand; so that it can never be disarmed. And its weapons make strong impression, because it proposeth the most effectual encouragements to its abettors, and discouragements to its adversaries, alluring the one with promises of God's favour and eternal happiness, terrifying the other with menaces of vengeance from

heaven, and endless misery; the which do ever quell religious, superstitious, weak people, and often daunt men of knowledge and courage.

Even persons otherwise just and good do seldom scruple to augment their power by undue encroachment, or at least to uphold the usurpation of their foregoers: for even such are apt to favour their own pretences, and afraid of incurring censure and blame if they should part with anything left them by their predecessors.

... Hence usually the worthiest men in the world's eye are greatest enlargers of power; and such men bringing appearances of virtue, ability, reputation, to aid their endeavours, do most easily compass designs of this nature, finding less obstruction to their attempts; for men are not so apt to suspect their integrity, or to charge them with ambition and avarice; and the few who discern their aims and consequences of things are overborne by the number of those who are favourably conceited and inclined towards them.

Men of an inferior condition are apt to express themselves highly in commendation of those who are in a superior rank, especially upon occasion of address and intercourse, which commendations are liable to be interpreted for acknowledgments or attestations of right, and thence do sometimes prove means of creating it.

... Of the generality of men it is truly said, that it doth fondly serve fame, and is stunned with titles and images; readily ascribing to superiors whatever they claim, without scanning the grounds of their title. Simple and weak men, out of abjectedness or fear, are wont to crouch, and submit to anything upon any terms. Wise men do not love brangling, nor will expose their quiet and safety without great reason; thence being inclinable to comply with greater persons. Bad men, out of design to procure advantages or impunity, are prone to flatter and gloze with them. Good men, out of due reverence to them, and in hope of fair usage from them, are ready to compliment them, or treat them with the most respectful terms. Those who are obliged to them will not spare to extol them, paying the easy return of good words for good deeds. Thus all men conspire to exalt power.

Ambiguity of words, as it causeth many debates, so yieldeth much advantage to the foundation and amplification of power; for whatever is said of it will be interpreted in favour of it, and will afford colour to its pretences. Words innocently or carelessly used are by interpretation extended to signify great matters, or what you please.

... There is a strange enchantment in words, which beingalthough with no great colour of reason-assumed, do work on the fancies of men, especially of the weaker sort. Of these

power doth ever arrogate to itself such as are most operative, by their force sustaining and extending itself.

So divers prevalent factions did assume to themselves the name of catholic; and the Roman church particularly hath appropriated that word to itself, even so as to commit a bull, implying Rome and the universe to be the same place, and the perpetual canting of this term hath been one of its most effectual charms to weak people: I am a Catholic, that is, an universal; therefore all I hold is true: this is their great argument.

The words, successor of Peter, apostolic see, prima sedes, have been strongly urged for arguments of papal authority; the which have, beyond their true force (for indeed they signify nothing), had a strange efficacy upon men of understanding and wisdom.

The Pope, by departing from the doctrine and practice of St. Peter, would forfeit his title of successor to him; for in such a case no succession in place or in name could preserve it.

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If then the bishop of Rome, instead of teaching Christian doctrine, doth propagate errors contrary to it: if, instead of guiding into truth and godliness, he seduceth into falsehood and impiety; if he prescribe vain, profane, superstitious ways of worship, turning devotion into foppery and pageantry; if, instead of preserving order and peace, he fomenteth discords and factions in the church, being a make-bait and incendiary among Christians; if he claimeth exorbitant power, and exerciseth oppression and tyrannical domination over his brethren, cursing and damning all that will not submit to his dictates and commands; if, instead of being a shepherd he is a wolf, worrying and tearing the flock by cruel persecution: he by such behaviour, ipso facto, depriveth himself of authority and office: he becometh thence no guide or pastor to any Christian; there doth in such case rest no obligation to hear or obey him, but rather to decline him, to reject and disclaim him. They themselves do acknowledge that heretics cease to be bishops, and so to be popes. Indeed they cease to be Christians.

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The Holy Scripture forbiddeth us to call any man master upon earth, or absolutely to subject our faith to the dictates of any man; it teacheth us that the apostles themselves are not lords of our faith, so as to oblige us to believe their own inventions; it forbiddeth us to swallow whole the doctrines and precepts of men without examination of them. It forbiddeth us to admit various and strange doctrines. But the pope and Roman church exact from us a submission to their dictates, admitting them for true, without any further inquiry or discussion, barely upon his authority."





THAT " blindness in part" which the Apostle Paul says has happened to Israel, has assuredly, in another sense, happened to the Gentile churches respecting them. Active religious persecution cannot be charged on Protestantism, because Protestantism takes the Bible for its rule, and Bible Christianity is wholly opposed to everything of the kind: but it is astonishing how very little concern has been manifested for Israel after the flesh, by those who owe every blessing they enjoy to their instrumentality. Protestantism itself must plead guilty to the twofold charge of having stood coldly by in the day of our elder brother's calamity, and of having appropriated by a spiritual application all the good things promised to Israel, not only without heeding the multiplied declarations of God's word as to his unchangeable purpose of final mercy to his chosen nation, but without even seeking, until within a few years, to extend to them the knowledge of those truths which they preserved for and handed to us.

But if Protestantism has to acknowledge sins of omission in reference to Israel, what a tremendous amount of crime, most outrageously committed against the dispersed and afflicted children of Abraham, has Popery to account for? No No page in her black history is so fearful to look upon as this; no blood sends up against her so piercing, so prolonged a cry as the blood of the Jew. The charge she brings against him is, that his fathers once, in blindness of heart, in ignorance and unbelief, put HIM to death whom it is her pride and glory continually to sacrifice afresh, and anew to devour every day; and in affected indignation at the sin of their forefathers, she has calumniated, hunted, robbed, tortured, and murdered the unoffending posterity from her first rise even to the present day, every act against them being branded most conspicuously with the characteristic mark-PERFIDY.

It is the fashion among historians to speak in terms of high encomium of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain; no marvel, since the original chroniclers of their deeds were all bigoted Papists; and as the period of their reign preceded the blessed Reformation, they were only enabled to satiate the thirst for blood which Popery invariably excites in acts of outrageous cruelty against two classes of persons, alike opposed to the very name of Christianity. As the Moors were slaughtered and expelled at a vast expense of life on the part of their conquerors, so were the Jews at a costly sacrifice of national wealth. For although the pious sovereigns contrived to plunder them of their silver and their

gold previous to hunting them out of the land, still no immediate pecuniary profit could in any degree compensate for the loss of the most industrious, the most skilful, the most active and intelligent class of persons in the kingdom, and withal so exceedingly numerous, the lowest computation rating them at little short of two hundred thousand souls, and the highest quadrupling that


The real government of Spain was, of course, vested in the Inquisition; and nothing could exceed the trembling submissiveness of the queen to the slightest whisper of Popish dictation. It may well be believed that, as the manner of Rome is always to grasp at present emolument, and never to concern herself with the consequences that the act may entail on her dupes and their possessions whether a king and his dominions, or a peasant and his pig, be the parties implicated-the prospect of such a day's plunder was irresistible. Accordingly a furious persecution of the Jews was determined on, and executed with circumstances of treachery so mean, so base, and so cowardly, that no one can fail to identify in it the same features that have glared out upon us from the chronicles of James II. in Ireland.

As a preliminary measure, the ancient calumnies, nearly as old as Popery itself, were revived against the Jews in Spain, as they have very recently been against those in Damascus, but with a more wanton defiance of possibility, a more open intermingling of the blasphemies of Rome with her cruelties. The charge of shedding Christian blood, of stealing Christian children in order to crucify them, and so forth, did not then suffice; Jews were taxed with having stolen things of more consequence than children; of having got possession of certain wafers, after transubstantiation had been performed by the priest, and of scourging, stabbing, roasting, boiling, and burying alive the body of the Lord Jesus Christ! In proof, it was adduced that the scourged or stabbed wafer indelibly marked the skin of the murderers with the blood that spouted forth; stewed or roasted, its fat either boiled over so plentifully or burnt so fiercely as to ignite the chimney with the supernatural flames; and buried, it was either discovered by a dazzling glory resting on the spot, or else jumped out upon the surface as often as interred. On such disgusting accusations as these were the Jews condemned en masse: their sentence was hopeless exile; a very short period was allowed for their departure; and by a wonderful act of royal clemency they were permitted to take their wealth with them, but not in gold or silver; they must furnish themselves with bills of exchange.

Here was the craft of the business; the atrocious perfidy of the system most fully exhibited. The Jews, enriched by their industry and very superior attainments, brought a vast deal of property into the market, so overstock ing it, that nobody would give them bills for their goods; especially as these latter must be

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