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This Goddess is represented with a lion's head, and the globe and asp of the Sun, of whom she is said to be the daughter; or with a human head, having the horns, feathers, and globe, which form the head-dress of Athor. She held a conspicuous place among the contemplar Deities of Thebes; but I am not certain what peculiar office she bore, nor to what Deity she corresponded in the Greek Pantheon. She may be the same as the following Goddess; and the city of the Pelusiac Daphne * was probably called after her, as well as the predecessor of the modern Tofnees, in the Thebaïd. The latter town, which lies between Esneh and the Gebelayn, is remarkable for its lofty mounds, and appears to have been the Aphroditopolis of Greek writers.

Tafne is represented in the Oasis holding a bow and arrow in her hand, with an eye on her head; but this is of late time, and of unusual occurrence.


The Goddess Thriphis is mentioned in the Greek dedications of the temples at Chemmis and Athribis, as the contemplar companion of Khem; and from the conspicuous post there held by her, it is evident that she was a Divinity of considerable consequence. Her exact form and attributes, how

*Herodot. ii. 30. 107. Tehaphnehes, or Tahpanhes, of S. S., and Tapval of the Septuagint. Vide Vol. I. p. 176.

ever, are not ascertained, though it is probable she had the head of a lion.*

Mr. Burton has given another Goddess with the head of that animal in the 26th Plate of his valuable "Excerpta;" but being of late Roman time, and of uncertain character, I have not introduced her with the other lion-headed Deities.


This Deity has also the head of a lion, surmounted by a solar disk; and she sometimes appears under a human form, with the head-dress of Athor. Her name reads Hak, or Hekte, probably the origin of the Grecian Hecate; and it is when bearing the attributes of this Goddess that Isis has the name of Hekte, or Hecate, attached to her own, as I have already observed.† Even the Goddess Maut is found sometimes to assume the title of Hekte, as well as her form and attributes ‡; and the same are likewise given to Pasht or Bubastis.§

Her figure occurs at Medeenet Haboo, and on other monuments of ancient date, both among the Gods of the temples and the Deities of the tombs, recalling the "Hecaten Coloque Ereboque potentem" of Virgil. According to Epiphanius, Hecate is the same as Tithrambo; since he says, "some are

* Vide suprà, Vol. I. (2d Series) p. 265. + Vide suprà, Vol. I. (2d Series) p. 369. Vide Plate 27. Part 1. fig. 2. Hierog. 4.

Vide suprà, Vol. I. (2d Series) p. 282.; and Plate 27. Part 2. Hierog. 2. Virg. Æn. vi. 247.

initiated into the rites of Tithrambo, which is interpreted Hecate; others into those of Nephthys; and some into those of Thermuthis." But the Deity Tithrambo seems rather to be connected with the Evil Being Ombte, or Ambo, already mentioned, and distinct from the Egyptian Hecate.+


The form and attributes of the Goddess Menhai are similar to those of Hekte: a lion's head surmounted by a solar disk, and the Uræus.

The figure in the accompanying Plate is taken from the temple of Esneh, which is of a Roman period. But Menhai was not a Deity of late introduction, since she appears at Thebes on monuments of an early Pharaonic age. From her name being attached to that of Pasht or Bubastist, we may conclude she sometimes assumed the character of the Egyptian Diana, though at Esneh she was one of the forms of Neith or Minerva.

ANOTHER CHARACTER OF PASHT, OR BUTO ?. This Goddess§ appears to be another character of Pasht she has the head of a cat; and her name is of frequent occurrence in Upper and Lower Egypt, particularly in the vicinity of the Pyramids, on monuments of the earliest date. She may

*Prichard, p. 144., who quotes Jablonski.
Vide suprà, Vol. I. (2d Ŝeries) p. 441.

Vide Plate 27. Part 2. Hierog. 4.

Plate 51. Part 4.; and suprà, Vol. I. (2d Series) p. 276.

possibly be Buto; and future discoveries will no doubt enable us to settle this question, and decide respecting the reading of her name.

EILETHYIA, ILithia, IlithyiA, SOVEN ?, SEBbn ?.

Though there is reason to believe that Netpe * held an important station as the protectress of mothers, the fact of the Goddess before us presiding over the city of Eilethyas, and her attendance upon Isis while nursing Horus, assert her claim to the name of Lucina. † It also seems in some degree confirmed by her emblem, a vulture ‡, the hieroglyphical representative of a "mother." Though the monuments show her to have performed the duties of Lucina, she is more usually the protectress of the Kings; and she does not appear, like the Greek Lucina, to be connected with the Moon, or with Bubastis the Egyptian Diana. At Eilethyas, she was worshipped under the name of Seneb or Soven; and there, as in other places, she had the office of Lucina. Netpe, as already stated, had also a claim to that character, being the "protectress of childbirth, and of nurses;' and the monster Goddess Typho (who appears to represent childbearing or gestation), Isis, and even

* Vide suprà, Vol. I. (2d Series) p. 314.
+ Hor. Carm. Sec. 13.-

"Rite maturos aperire partus,
Lenis Ilithyia, tuere matres;
Sive tu Lucina probas vocari,
Seu Genitalis."

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Has Horapollo in view Eilethyia or Juno-Lucina, when he says Juno and Minerva are both represented by a vulture? (i. 11.)

Ranno, Athor, and other Deities, shared with her the duties of Lucina.

Here, as in many instances, we observe the characters of some of the Egyptian Deities to be as closely allied as those of the Greek Pantheon; and the occasional transfer of the attributes of one God to another, and the gradual blending of minute shades of distinction, tend to make their mythology obscure and uncertain. Thus we have the Goddess

Soven, or Eilethyia :

Netpe, who was Rhea, the protectress of mothers in childbirth :

Typho, the emblem of childbearing or gestation: Ranno, the nurse of infant princes: and Isis, Athor, and other Goddesses, who assisted with Lucina, or acted as the nurses of children.*

The Romans, in like manner, had several Goddesses who presided over parturition and young children, as Partunda and others; and so numerous did their Deities become by this subdivision of their nature or attributes, that Petronius observes," Italy is now so holy, that it is easier to find a God than a man."

The hieroglyphic legend of the Egyptian Lucina reads Seneb, Sebn †, or Soven; and she is styled Lady of the Land of Seneb, or Sebn" (Eilethyas), which is represented by, and appears to be derived

*Vide infra, p. 46.; and on Ranno.

+ Some might see in this origin of the name of Sebennytus. Vide suprà, p. 18.

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