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ferent houses or workshops as he passed along, offered the young negroes for sale; yet scarcely a day passed while we were in the town, during which we did not meet these heartless traffickers in human beings thus employed. In the English or Portuguese families with which we had any opportunities of becoming acquainted, although the domestic slaves did not appear to be treated with that unkindness which the slaves in the field often experience, yet, even here, the whip was frequently employed in a manner, and under eircumstances, revolting to every feeling of humanity.
The slaves in Rio Janeiro may, however, be said to live in ease and comfort, when their circumstances are compared with those of New Zealand. Here their means of subsistence is scanty and precarious, the treatment is barbarous in the extreme, their lives are held in light estimation, and often taken in the most brutal manner, for very trivial causes, while their bodies furnish a horrible repast for the owner who has murdered them. During our stay, the Missionaries related some very affecting accounts of the destruction of slaves by their masters; and the following has been published by the Missionaries residing among the people. A female slave ran away from Atoai, a chief, and her retreat was for some time unknown to her master; at length he saw her sitting with some natives at Koranareka, near his residence. He led her away, tied her to a tree, and shot her. Captain Duke, of the Sisters, hearing of the circumstance, went to the place, and found the body of the girl prepared for baking in a native oven, the large bones of the legs and arms having been cut out. On his expostulating, they said it was
not his concern, and they should act as they pleased. They often seem to take a savage delight in murdering their slaves, in which they are unawed by the presence of strangers. A few years ago, a chief of the name of Tuma, killed with an iron bill-hook, a female slave, who was employed in washing linen at Mr. Hanson's door, though Mr. Kendall and Mr. King, two of the Missionaries, interfered for her rescue.
Their superstitions seem more vague and indistinct, and their system of religion more rude and unorganized, than that of most of the other inhabitants of the South Sea Islands, though many of their traditions are singular and interesting. Their temples are few and insignificant, their priests probably less numerous and influential, as a distinct class, than those of Tahiti or Hawaii formerly were; their worship less frequent, ceremonial, and imposing, and also less sanguinary. I never heard of their offering human sacrifices. They believe in a future state, which they suppose will correspond in some degree with the present. Like some of the barbarous nations in Africa, they imagine that it is necessary the spirits of departed chiefs should be attended by the spirits of their slaves; this occasions the death of numbers of unhappy captives. The Missionaries observe, that it is a common practice to kill one or two slaves on such occasions. At one time, a child who resided in the immediate neighbourhood of the Missionaries was drowned: the father was absent, the mother made great lamentation, and called upon the people around, to put to death some one, whose spirit should be a companion for that of her child, on its way to the rainga, (heaven.) An aged female slave, apprehensive of
the consequence of such an appeal, took refuge among the high fern, and effectually concealed herself. A female relative of the deceased child called out to the slave, assuring her she should be spared. The poor creature made her appearance, when the brother of the child was called, and immediately despatched the slave with a stone implement.
Although their character is so dark, their temper so ferocious, and their conduct so violent and murderous, in some respects their dispositions appear more humane and amiable than those of the Tahitians. To the catalogue of their vices and their cruelties they did not add that deliberate systematic infanticide, which the Areois practised; and though not guiltless of this crime, it was exercised less frequently, and some of them, especially the fathers, seemed fond of their children. A pleasing illustration of this occurred while I was among them; and I mention it the more cheerfully, as the general impression their spirit and behaviour made upon my mind was of a different kind.
In an excursion to Waikadie, shortly after leaving the Bay of Islands, we reached Kauakaua, where Mr. Hall proposed to land. As we approached the shore, no trace of inhabitants appeared; but we had scarcely landed, when we were somewhat surprised by the appearance of Tetoro, and a number of his people. The chief ran to meet us, greeting us in English, with "How do you do?" He perceived I was a stranger, and, on hearing my errand and destination, he offered me his hand, and saluted me, according to the custom of his country, by touching my nose with his. He was a tall, fine-looking
man, about six feet high, and proportionably stout, his limbs firm and muscular, and, when dressed in his war-cloak, with all his implements of death appended to his person, he must have appeared formidable to his enemies. When acquainted with our business, he prepared to accompany us; but before we set out, an incident occurred that greatly raised my estimation of his character. In front of the hut sat his wife, and around her played two or three little children. In passing from the hut to the boat, Tetoro struck one of the little ones with his foot; the child cried—and, though the chief had his mat on, and his gun in his hand, and was in the act of stepping into the boat where we were waiting for him, he no sooner heard its cries, than he turned back, took the child up in his arms, stroked its little head, dried its tears, and, giving it to the mother, hastened to join us. His conversation in the boat, during the voyage, so far as it was made known to me, indicated no inferiority of intellect, nor deficiency of local information. On reaching Waikadie, about twenty miles from our ship, we were met by Waivea, Tetoro's brother; but his relationship appeared to be almost all that he possessed in common with him, as he was both in appearance and in conduct entirely a savage.
It was in the month of December, 1816, that I visited New Zealand; and here for the first time saw the rude inhabitants of the South Sea Islands, in their native state. At daylight, on the morning after our arrival on the coast, we found ourselves off Wangaroa bay, where, six years before, the murderous quarrel took place, in which the crew of the Boyd were cut off by the natives, and near which, subsequently, the Methodist Mission
ary station at Wesleydale, established in 1823, has been, through the alarming and violent conduct of the inhabitants, abandoned by the Missionaries, and utterly destroyed by the natives. Several canoes, with three or four men in each, approached our vessel at a very early hour, with fish, fishing-lines, hooks, and a few curiosities for sale. Their canoes were all single, generally between twenty and thirty feet long, formed out of one tree, and nearly destitute of every kind of
The men, almost naked, were rather above the middle stature, of a dark copper colour, their features frequently well formed, their hair black and bushy, and their faces much tataued, and ornamented, or rather disfigured, by the unsparing application of a kind of white clay and red ochre mixed with oil. Their appearance and conduct, during our first interview, was by no means adapted to inspire us with prepossessions in their favour. Our captain refused to admit them into the ship, and, after bartering with them for some of their fish, we proceeded on our voyage.
On reaching the Bay of Islands we were cordially welcomed by our Christian brethren, the Missionaries of the Church Missionary Society, who had been about two years engaged in promoting instruction and civilization among the New Zealanders. They were the first Missionaries we had seen on heathen ground, and it afforded us pleasure to become acquainted with those who were in some respects to be our future fellowlabourers. Having been kindly invited to spend on shore the next day, which was the Sabbath, we left the ship soon after breakfast, on the morning of the 22nd. When we reached the landing-place,