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Egypt and in other countries, but it cannot be said that they have relinquished their habits for those of women; and we find from the paintings executed by the Egyptians themselves, that both men and women were employed in manufacturing cloth.

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"Other nations," continues the historian, "make cloth by pushing the woof upwards, the Egyptians, on the contrary, press it down; and this is confirmed by the paintings * which represent the process of manufacturing cloth; but at Thebes,† a man who is engaged in making a piece of cloth, with a co+ Woodcut 384, fig. 2.

* In woodcut 382, fig. 2.

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Part 1. Men engaged in spinning, and making a sort of network. 2. The horizontal loom, or perhaps mat-making.

Beni Hassan.

loured border or selvage, appears to push the woof upwards, the cloth being fixed above him to the upper part of the frame. They had also the horizontal loom, which occurs at Beni Hassan and other places; and at El Bersheh we see the mode of taking up the increasing length of the cloth by pegs in the ground (as still done in Ethiopia), and how the women wound off numerous threads from balls placed within a slight framework, the fineness of which is indicated by the number taken to form one twist.

In the hieroglyphics over persons employed with the spindle, it is remarkable that the word saht, which in Coptic signifies to "twist," constantly occurs. The spindles were generally small, being about one foot three inches in length, and several, found at Thebes, are now in the museums of Europe.* They were generally of wood, and in order to increase their impetus in turning,

* One of those in the British Museum, which I found at Thebes, had some of the linen thread with it. Woodcut 385, fig. 2.

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k is a shuttle, not thrown, but put in with the hand. It had a hook at each end. See woodcut 382, fig. 2.

the circular head was occasionally of gypsum, or composition; some, however, were of a light plaited work, made of rushes, or palm leaves, stained of various colours, and furnished with a loop of the same materials, for securing the twine after it was wound.* Besides the use of the spindle, and form of the loom, we find the two principal purposes, to which flax was applied, represented in the paintings of the tombs: and at Beni Hassan the mode of

* Woodcut 385, fig. 5. Another of wood, fig. 6.

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Fig. 1 is a sort of cane split at the top to give it a globular shape.

2 has the head of gypsum.

3 entirely of wood.

4 of plaited or basket work.

5 the loop to put over the twine.

6 a ring of wood for securing the twine.

cultivating the plant, in the same square beds now met with throughout Egypt (much resembling our salt pans), the process of beating the stalks, and making them into ropes, and the manufacture of a piece of cloth, are distinctly pointed out.

It is, however, possible that the part of the picture, where men are represented pouring water from earthen pots, may refer to the process of steeping the stalks of the plant, after they were cut; the square spaces would then indicate the different pits in which they were immersed, containing some less, some more,

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Beni Hassan

Preparing the flax, beating it, and making it into twine and cloth.

a, steps leading up to the top of the pits. bb, where the flax was steeped.

Fig. 1 brings water in earthen pots.

4 and 5 are engaged in beating it with mallets, e e.

7 and 8 striking it, after it is made into yarn, on a stone, g.

cc, the flax taken by fig. 3 to dry, previous to beating.
d, the stalks fresh cut.

9 and 10 twisting the yarn into a rope.

11 and 12 show that a piece of cloth, i, has been made of the yarn 13, a superintendent.

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