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Part 1.

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Fig. 1 puts the seed into the basket.

which may be seen in the Vignette. 2 sowing the land after the plough has passed. The handle of the plough has a peg at the side like the modern Egyptian plough,

Part 2.

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Ploughing, sowing, and reaping.

Fig. 1. Plucking up the doora by the roots. 2. Reaping wheat.

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Tombs of the Kings-Thebes.

[graphic]
[blocks in formation]

Fig. 1. The reapers. 2. A reaper drinking from a cup. 3, 4. Gleaners: the first of these asks the
5. Carrying the ears in a rope basket: the length of the stubble showing the ears alone are cut off.
10. The tritura, answering to our threshing. 12 drinks from a water-skin suspended in a tree.
the r. rer of bushels measured from the heap. 16 Checks the account by noting those taken

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reaper to allow him to drink. 8. Winnowing.

14. Scribe who notes down away to the granary.

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The tritura.

Fig. 1. The steward, or the owner of the land.

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3. The driver. 2 throws the ears of wheat into the centre, that the oxen may pass over them and tread out the grain.

4 brings the wheat to the threshing-floor in baskets carried on asses.

The oxen are yoked together, that they may walk round regularly.

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fallen ears in hand baskets. The rope net, answering to the Shenfeh of modern Egypt, was borne on a pole by two men ; and the threshing-floor was a level circular area near the field, or in the vicinity of the granary, where, when it had been well swept, the ears were deposited, and cattle were driven over it to tread out the grain. While superintending the animals so employed, the Egyptian peasants, like their modern successors, relieved their labours by singing; and in a tomb at Eileithyias this song of the threshers is written in hieroglyphics over oxen

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Eileithyias.

treading out the grain :-" (1) Thresh for yourselves (twice, a), (2) O oxen, (3) thresh for yourselves (twice, b), (4) measures for yourselves, (5) measures for your masters." The discovery and translation of this are due to Champollion, to whom all who study hieroglyphics are under such infinite obligations, and whose talents were beyond all praise.

A certain quantity was first strewed in the centre of the area, and when this had been well triturated by the animals' feet, more was added by means of large wooden forks, from the main

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Fig. 1. The steward.

2, 3. Reapers.

9. Winnowers.

11. The scribe.

Harvest scene.

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5. A woman gleaner. 6 carrying the wheat in the usual rope net. 13, 14 carrying the grain to the granary in sacks. The continuation of this scene, beyond the fig. 14, is given in woodcut 33, vol. i. p. 32.

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7. The tritura.

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