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detailed description. They usually present a hieroglyphic inscription, either in a vertical line down the centre, or in horizontal bands round the body, containing the name and quality of the deceased, with the customary presentation of offerings for his soul to Osiris, a chapter from the ritual, or some funereal formula. In the hands of these figures are a hoe and a bag of seed. Their arms are crossed in imitation of certain representations of Osiris, whose name and form the dead assumed; and their beard indicates the return of the human soul, which once animated that body, to the Deity from whom it emanated.

I do not enter into a minute description of all the modes of arranging the objects in the tombs, the endless variety of Egyptian mummies, or the subjects of their painted cases. I have confined myself to a general view of this, as of other subjects connected with the manners and customs of this ancient and remarkable people; and now, having accompanied the Egyptians to the tomb, I take my leave of them with this wish,

"Sedibus ut saltem placidis in morte quiescant."

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Aaron, embroidered fine linen coat
of, ii. 81.

Abbott, collection of Dr., i. 194, 195,
368, 383.

Abrek, Berek, "bow the knee," ii.

Abstract ideas, i. 327, 328, 330.
Abydus, Temple of Osiris at, i. 301,

false arch at, ii. 301.

some preferred to be buried at,
ii. 377.

Abyssinia. See Monkies.
Abyssinian branch of the Nile, ii. 19.

called "blue" properly "black
river," ii. 20.

Abyssinians do not eat geese and
ducks, i. 166.

Acacia, or Mimosa, several kinds of,
i. 57; ii. 28, 37, 38. See Sont.

a sensitive, in Ethiopia, ii. 28.
séal, of the Eastern desert, ii.
38, 106.
Acanthus, or Sont, groves of, ii. 28,
37, 110.

Adaptability. See Taste, i. 21; ii. 288.
Admired the knick-knacks and furni-
ture of the rooms, i. 146.
Egyptus the old name of the Nile, i.

not the land of Egypt, in Homer,
i. 303.
African enemies of Egypt, i. 403, 404.
Agathodæmon, the Asp, i. 46.
Age, respect for old, ii. 226.


Agesilaus took back chaplets of pa-
pyrus to Sparta, i. 57, 81.
entertained by Tachos, i. 81.
Agility. See Feats of
Agriculture, ii. 3-54.
Agriculture. See Land, Plants, Plough.
led to scientific discoveries, ii.

led to the adjustment of the
year, ii. 251, 252.

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and manufactures of Egypt, ii.


Agweh, preserve of dates, i. 55.
Alabaster used for vases and bottles,
i. 156, 157; ii. 70, 342.

walls lined with, ii. 288, 292.
Alabastron, vase called, ii. 342.
Alcaline plant called Boréeth, ii. 106.
Alexander's conquest of Egypt, i.

Alexandria, population of, i. 305.

number of persons who sold
vegetables in, i. 168.

much wine to be obtained at, i.

Alitta or Mylitta, i. 333.
Alloys in bronze, i. 148.
Almond tree in Egypt, i. 57; ii. 27.
oil, ii. 24, 27.

Alluvial deposit in the Valley of the
Nile, i. 306; ii. 8, 9.

rise of, and proportion of the,
ii. 8, 9. See Nile.

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kept at Memphis,


stables of, i. 290, 295.
shown to strangers, i. 290.
said to have been drowned after
living twenty-five years, i. 291.

embalmed and buried with great
pomp, i. 291.

died and another chosen, i. 291.
children prophetic who smelt
the breath of, and attended the
processions in honour of, i. 291, 295.
-, expense of the funeral of, i. 292.
-, discovery of burial-place of, i.

generally lived 17 to 20 years,
i. 292.

-, rejoicings on finding the new, i.
293, 294.

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in Greece, ii. 302.

true and false, ii. 302, 303.

of brick, ii. 300-303.

of stone, ii. 300, 301, 303.

--, principle of the, not depending
on the material, nor on the key-
stone, ii. 300.

the pent roof the predecessor of
the, ii. 303.

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pointed, very early, ii. 304.

pointed, very early, at Tuscu-
lum, in Italy (woodcut), ii. 261.
substitutes for, and origin of
the, ii. 302-304.
Archers of Egypt, i. 337.

of the infantry, i. 354.
attack of, i. 405.

Architecture of Egypt, derived much
from natural productions, ii. 280,

-, some parts from wood, ii. 280.
at first simple, ii. 297.

a creation of the mind, ii. 271.

constructed borrowed pillar
from the quarry, but rock-temples
and tombs took other members
from constructed-ii. 281.

Byzantine, and Romanesque,
Lombard, Saxon, Norman, Sara-
cenic, pointed, ii. 305.

progress and modification of
styles of, ii. 305. See Saracenic.

Ark, or boat, of Sokari, i. 284, 285.
Arks. See Shrines.

Armed troops, light and heavy, i. 338,
340, 368.

Arms of Egyptian soldiers, i. 344–369.

Arms of their allies, i. 338.

of heavy and light armed troops,
i. 368.

Army, amount of the, i. 337.

discipline of the, i. 337, 338, 340.
regiments of the, i. 338, 340.
See Soldiers.

standards of the, i. 342, 343.
return of the. See War.

Aroura, or Arura, land measure, ii.

Arouras, twelve given to each soldier,
i. 336; ii. 228.

Arrivals of guests at a party, i. 73-76,

Arrows, length of, i. 353.

of reed, i. 352, 353; ii. 30.

tipped with metal, or with flint,
i. 222, 353.

with flint heads used by the
Greeks also, and others, i. 353, 354.
-, spare, i. 351, 352.

Arsinoë, on the Red Sea, ii. 235, 236.

or Crocodilopolis, i. 307.

Arsinoïte nome, i. 242; ii. 28.

Artificial flowers, i. 57.

Arts, ii. 277-280.

See Taste.

of production and arts of design,
ii. 295.

and inventions older than we
suppose, ii. 57.

Aryandes coined money in Egypt, ii.

Ascalon and Asmaor (Samaria ?), i.


Ashûr of ten strings, a Jewish instru-
ment, i. 126, 130.

Asiatic enemies of Egypt. See Ene-

A'Souán, or Syene, Cuphic inscrip-
tions at, ii. 142.

-, quarries at, ii. 309, 311.
Asp, or Agathodæmon, guarding a
store-room, i. 46.

sacred to Neph (Nû, or Nûm),
i. 253.

Assemblies, the great, i. 280.
Asses numerous in Egypt, i. 231.
wild, not represented, i. 244.

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Athenian coins of commerce had the

old type, ii. 151.

Athor, cow or heifer the emblem of,
i. 260, 261, 299.

Venus of Egypt, i. 333.

the Persea the sacred tree of,

ii. 383.
Athribis (or Crocodilopolis), i. 307.
Attendants collecting the game, i.

Axe, or hatchet, used in war, i. 361,
362, 419.

with a metal blade, used by
peasants also, ii. 18.

A'zrek means "black" as well as
"blue," ii. 20.

Baalbek, large stones of, ii. 299.

mode of removing large stones
from the quarry at, ii. 316.
Babel (Babylon), tribute from, i. 397.
Babylon, arched tunnel under the
Euphrates at, ii. 302.


mode of carrying Gods of, i.

golden statues at, ii. 243.
Babylonian embroidered cloths, and
cloths of different colours, ii. 81.
Babylonians, pole, sun-dial, and divi-
sion of day, from the, ii. 319.
Bacchus, fête of, i. 287.

resemblance of, to Osiris, i. 285.
Bags containing gold dust, i. 148.
Bagpipes of the Abruzzi, i. 129.
Baïs, palm branches, i. 71.
Baker and cook formerly the same
office, i. 177.
Balance, ii. 148, 152.
Balanites. See Egleeg.
Ball, or bullet, the pointed, i. 358.
-, games of, i. 198-200.

See Scales.

-, they mounted on each other's
backs while playing at, i. 198, 200.
Balsam, ii. 27.

Bargains, length of time in con-
cluding, ii. 104.

Barley, ii. 21. See Wheat, and Beer.
Barrels not wanted in Egypt, ii. 166.
Basin of Amasis, golden, i. 186.
Baskets for fruit when gathered,
i. 43.

Bastinado, punishment of the, i. 418;
ii. 4, 210, 211, 215.

of women, ii. 211.

of workmen, ii. 212.

of shereefs and great men, ii. 212.
of a Copt at Cairo, ii. 213.

Baths, ii. 349.

Bats represented, i. 234.
Battle axe, i. 362, 363.

with bronze blade and silver
casing to the handle, i. 363.
Battles formerly decided by hand-to-
hand fighting, i. 364.
Beads, ii. 64, 65, 339, 340.

Beans and other vegetables eaten,
but not by the priests, i. 323.
Bear, i. 228, 245.
Beards, false, ii. 329.

of gods, kings, and private indi-
viduals, ii. 329.

Bedroom furniture, i. 70, 71.

Bedsteads, i. 72.

Beef and goose favourite meats of the
Egyptians, i. 66.

not wholesome, i. 66.

Beer, men drunk with, i. 54.

offered, i. 266.

called barley-wine, and zythos
(zythus), i. 53-55.

Bees and hives, i. 36.

taken on the Nile in boats, i. 36.
Bellows worked by the feet, i. 174.
Benha-el-Assal, or "Benha of honey,"
town of, i. 37.

Beni-Hassan, strange shields at, i.

wrestlers at, i. 204, 205.

dwarfs and deformed persons
at, i. 204.

Benno sacred bird of Osiris (appa-
rently the Phoenix), i. 251, 252.
Berek. See Abrek.

Berenice, on the Red Sea, ii. 235-237.
Berkel, pyramids of Gebel, ii. 301,

Bersheh. See Colossus.
Bident spear, i. 237-239.

Biot, reign of Thothmes fixed by, ii.

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of guard ships, ii. 55.

steersman a high office among,
ii. 55.

Boats of Egypt, i. 414; ii. 119–131.
See Ships.

with double mast in early times,
i. 413, 414.

-, punts, or canoes of papyrus,
osiers, &c., pitched, ii. 119, 120, 123.
various kinds of, in Egypt, ii.
123, 130.

going up and down the Nile, ii.

sails of, like those of China, but
generally of sailcloth, ii. 123.
of burthen, ii. 121, 122.

of large size only used during
high Nile, ii. 125.


made of the papyrus, ii. 119-

mentioned by Pliny and Strabo,
at the Cataracts, ii. 119, 121.

of the papyrus safe against cro-
codiles, ii. 120.

of papyrus not sent to India, as
Pliny pretends, ii. 122.

- of the Armenians covered with
hide, ii. 121.

of Egypt had no beaks, ii. 128.
construction of, ii. 130.

lotus painted on, ii. 127.

-, eye on prow of, confined to the
funeral boats, ii. 127, 367.

eye on Maltese and Indian, ii.

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