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versities are not government institutions. The pressure which the State involuntarily exercises over salaried officials is thus removed. Yet complete severance from the State is also hurtful, for the beneficial influence of the sciences upon the government would necessarily suffer loss, and the necessary stronghold and background of the universities would often be lacking. In reality there are only a few universities and scientific unions entirely independent in England. The two historic universities of Oxford and Cambridge, though wealthy through private legacies and consequently independent, are still closely identified with clerical matters.

The ideal of universities will probably develop itself first in the republican States of North America, provided real universities be among their future possessions. The present institutions are mostly special schools, founded by sects. In this country, however, the State takes a deep interest in educational matters, supporting them liberally. Moreover, private individuals spend magnificent sums for the maintenance of improved school buildings and libraries. A large tract of land is set apart for the support of schools from its annual income. their real management is left to the so-called school community itself. A certain harmony is introduced into all school matters by the Bureau of Education, which forms a part of the portfolio of the Interior.


In America we find three kinds of institutions for science. and art: (1) Those founded by sects, chiefly Christian. Out of them the ideal will never be developed, as they are more or less bound by dogma; and dogma is the death of freedom in science and art. (2) State universities. From these also the ideal is not to be expected. In consequence of the separation between Church and State these institutions are not complete universities, because they exclude theological subjects and the historic and philosophic researches connected with them. It is contrary to the true aim, to the essential universality—in fact, to the very name of a university, to exclude such matters, for they are the centre of all deeper thought. Therefore, the term "university" should not be applied to

sectarian schools nor to such incomplete State institutions. (3) Private institutions for the higher branches of science and art, independent of Church and State. From this class the ideal of universities will doubtless arise, especially if the State, without interfering in any way as dictator or censor, lends its material assistance to such private undertakings. Yet at present they afford scarcely a nucleus for a great university in the sense of these essays.

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Therefore, there is only one way in this country to attain the ideal a complete university, absolutely independent of Church and State, established as a private institution, by private subscription. It should be so commanding by its superiority over existing universities and academies that the State cannot overlook it, but shall be morally bound to acknowledge it as a power and to assist it pecuniarily, without even attempting to dictate its policy. Such a university-private, yet assisted actively and unselfishly by the State-was the ideal of Plato two thousand years ago. It will be realized first in this country, by the establishing of a single institution as a model university; but later there will be many of the same kind in this and other countries. May these lines be read by those who are wealthy and intelligent enough to take the matter in hand and lay the foundation of a truly ideal university.

The complete ideal will doubtless never be wholly realized at a single institution, though one may approach the true ideal more closely than another. Thus far we are unable to point to an existing university as even approximating it. All universities existing in civilized countries at a given time approach it from different sides; although based upon the particular local, material, or national advantages, each one seeks to reach a common ideal. True science and true art are one; yet it must be conceded that technics and art in general more easily admit of individualization than science, which is based essentially upon the laws of thought and being which are common to humanity. Thus the English, owing to their easy communication with all parts of the globe, are peculiarly enabled to work for an international unity of the sciences; to promote the study

of Oriental languages, and to make collections of objects of natural history, art, and technics of all kinds; also, by means of their great wealth they are able to conduct on a large scale scientific expeditions for geographical and meteorological purposes. The Germans, on account of their methodical training in science, are enabled to promote philosophic treatment and systematic arrangement of the sciences; while almost every other nation has its peculiar advantages and capacities.

A second consideration is that the ideal of universities cannot be imagined as attainable at any given time. The ideal is not a stable condition, but rather an ever-changing process. The problem, therefore, must be solved anew by each epoch; and the more the universities correspond to the prevailing standard of culture, the more closely will they approach their ideal.

There is to be not merely an interchange of ideas and a common striving after the ideal at all universities, but each must try to become more and more perfect, with a view to the ultimate realization of the ideal. The time will then have arrived when civilization is interwoven with a net of universities which, in their entirety, form a united power for good, and, being the very eye of culture, are an increased blessing to humanity.

We shall conclude, in the next number, with a review of the system of all sciences.





“Terrestrial charts are drawn from celestial observations."
"The Real drinks music from the Ideal Thought."

SINCE " in union lies strength," success in any enterprise demands union of purpose and of methods. The multitudes that are dealing so vigorously with existing evils are evidence enough of common purpose and effort in the direction of improvement. In methods, we find confronting each other, as if they were two, the Ideal and the Practical. The idealist presents as ideals Truth, Love, Justice, Honor, Oneness, and Spirituality. If distinctively religious, he urges certain lines of belief; if distinctively metaphysical, he withdraws from the practical, since "all is Mind," and confines himself to the announcement of truths and gaining their recognition, perhaps insisting that in order perfectly to reflect the Divine Image we should not disturb our serenity by meddling with the disorder around us, and that even cases of healing are important only as they demonstrate Being.

Says the practical man, "Tell us not what to be, but what to do." He works at what he sees. He sees a swarming tenementhouse and sweat-shops, and forms a League to suppress them; sees a saloon, and calls for legal enactments; sees pauperism, and builds an almshouse; sees crime, and builds a prison; sees hunger, and supplies "free soup"; sees rags and nakedness, and furnishes garments; sees disease, and deals with it bodily,

by founding hospitals. His work is chiefly one of adjustment, dealing with results rather than with causes.

Now, for successful world-betterment, the ideal and the practical should be recognized as one-as a daisy is one with the daisy idea at the back. Indeed, this union of the two has high indorsement. The dictionary tells us, from good authority, that "when metaphysics loses its connection with physics it becomes empty and dreary," and "when physics ceases to be penetrated with metaphysics it becomes confused and stupid." A far higher authority is Life as manifested in Nature, the inner connecting itself with the outer in the very minutest details, each form becoming such from the unseen ideal which shapes it. Let the practical men, then, seek the highest ideals. And the metaphysical -let these not sit apart in ecstatic contemplation of themselves as images of the Divine, saying, serenely, "All is Mind; this all is the all of Reality." Since Universal Mind concerns itself with the outward, why not they? Also, if reflections of the Creative, they should themselves be creative. "The Father worketh hitherto, and I work." Then let the Ideal and the Practical unite in building up this human world by divine methods and according to divine laws.

Suppose the union were made. Says the practical man to the apostle of Mind: "What is your idea? You wish for our children a religious training. You see with what they will have to contend-the political corruption, the planned ruin of railroads, the knavishness in business management, the money greed, the accepted rule of selfhood, the tyranny of trusts, the distress of the impoverished, the desperation of strikes, the enormous outlay for the punishment of wrong-doing, the extent of the social evil as showing the degradation of both men and women, and the hosts of the unemployed: have you an idea mighty enough to cope with such a multiplicity of evils?" Surely, is the reply, since their multitude need not imply the same number of causes. The affairs of a whole city would be thrown into disorder by the single error of calling two and two five, in keeping the yearly accounts. The sure move toward order would be to find the mistake. So in this human entan

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