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this time until the resurrection, the whole of that period would appear to him as nothing. Ten thousand years passed under such circumstances would be less than a watch in the night.

That it is only by comparing that consciousness, which, when awake, ever attends us, of the permanency of our own existence, with that ever successive change of states, to which the immaterial part of our being is subject, that we acquire our notions of duration, is in some measure proved by a variety of facts, which have been ascertained and preserved.

There is, for example, in the French work, L'Histoire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences pour l'annee, 1719, a statement to the following effect.


There was in Lausanne a nobleman, who, as he was giving orders to a servant, suddenly lost his speech and all his senses. Different remedies were tried, but, for a very considerable time, without effect. For six months he peared to be in a deep sleep, unconscious of every thing. At the end of that period, however, resort having been had to certain chirurgical operations, he was suddenly restored to his speech and the exercise of his understanding. When he recovered, the servant, to whom he had been giving orders, when he was first seized with the distemper, happening to be in the room, he asked him, if he had done what he had ordered him to, not being sensible, that any interval, except perhaps a very short one, had elapsed during his ill


We get the idea of TIME, by considering any part of duration, as set or marked off by periodical measures, such as days or years. And it should be remarked, when we consider our design of tracing all our ideas to sensation and reflection, that we obtain the idea of these lengths or measures by means of the senses, viz. by our observation of the annual and diurnal revolutions of the sun.

Under the simple modes from duration, then, may be reckoned minutes, hours, days, months, years, indeed every division, of which duration is susceptible.

§. 65. Simple modes from extension.

To extension, which is a simple idea, derived from the senses of sight and touch, we give the name of length, when it is contemplated as existing only in one direction.

All our artificial measures of extension, such as an inch, a foot, a yard, a furlong, a mile, a league, a degree, whatever may be the process of the mind in forming those measures, are among its simple modes.

That is to say, if we adopt an inch as the original measurement or the unit, from which we are to begin, then a foot consists of parts of extension, signified by the term inch, multiplied twelve times; and a yard is the same measure, increased or multiplied thirty six times.

§. 66. Idea of infinity.

Of our idea of infinity it seems difficult to give any satisfactory explanation or to say with certainty where it should be classed, but there are three things, with which we are in the habit of connecting it, viz. number, duration, and extension.

We form the idea of infinity of number by adding numbers as far as possible, with the additional notion, that this process may be carried on to any extent.

We form the idea of infinity of duration by repeating, the ideas of time, such as an hour or a day, the same as in number.

We obtain the idea of infinity of extension, or rather of that modification of extension, which is termed LENGTH, in the same manner, by repeating the ideas of an inch, a foot, a yard, or some other measure, always feeling, when we have carried on this addition to the utmost extent of which we are capable, that it may be prosecuted still further, indefinitely.

We seem to ourselves to receive the clearest idea of infinity from number, because the distinction between all its modes is very accurately marked, so that we have a well defined perception of it. Indeed it does not appear, that,

without the assistance of number, we could ever form the ideas of infinity of duration and extension.

We obtain the idea of ETERNITY by supposing our ideas of time, for instance, a month or year, repeated in both directions, in time past as well as in that which is to come, always keeping the idea of the possibility of the further prosecution of this process of repeating.

§. 67. Of the complex ideas called mixed modes. Mixed modes are complex ideas, the attributes or dependencies of substances, compounded of simple ideas of 'different kinds. Instances are the ideas of theft, murder, gratitude, &c.

THEFT is a change of property without the consent of the owner; consequently, embraces among other ideas, differing from each other, those of ownership, transference, and consent.

MURDER is putting a person to death with evil intention or malice aforethought; consequently includes the ideas of man, death, evil feelings.

GRATITUDE is an emotion of love or complacency towards a person for some act of kindness, which he has done to us. In this mixed mode, therefore, we have reference, not only to the person, who has received the benefit, but to the person, who conferred it, as well as to the act itself and the intellectual emotion excited.

§. 68. Three ways of forming mixed modes.

There are three ways in particular, in which we appear to receive into the mind MIXED modes.

(1) The first method is by experience or observation of the things themselves.

We see a person wrestling, swimming, or fencing, and thence learn the ideas, conveyed by those words.

(2) The second method is by invention or voluntarily putting together several simple ideas in our own minds.

The person, that first invented etching or printing, had an acquaintance both with the complex ideas, and some

subordinate ideas conveyed in those terms, before they could have existed in the minds of others.

(3) Third method,-By taking ideas, which already exist in the mind, and which, being generally known, may be considered common property, and combining them together; for example in the word, falsehood.

By examining the mixed modes and tracing them to their original elements, we shall find them ultimately connected with the great sources of our knowledge, sensation and reflection.

§. 69. Not the same mixed modes in all languages.

The customs, habits, modes of thinking, political institutions, &c are not the same in all countries, but differ in greater or less degree. Hence there is need of different expressions that is, of expressions in one language not precisely corresponding to expressions in another.

Thus the word, OSTRAKISMOS in the Greek, PROSCRIPTIO in the Latin, and CORBAN in the Hebrew, expressed ideas, to which most other nations found nothing precisely corresponding, and, consequently, had no corresponding term.

This suggests a remark on the changes, which take place in languages. It is well known, that there are constant alterations in customs, and hardly less frequent fluctuations in feeling and opinion, and hence there necessarily arise new combinations of thought or ideas; and these must be expressed by new names.

If people should be found unable or unwilling to invent new names for the expression of new complex ideas, they would evidently be subjected to great inconvenience. This may be seen, if we deprive ourselves of the benefit of any complex terms, for instance, reprieve and appeal, and attempt to converse on the subjects, where they naturally


We do not consider a mixed mode, as actually existing in a language without a name.

The number of mixed modes, therefore, in any language, although it might be greatly increased, is looked

upon as limited by the number of names or words, by which they are expressed.



§. 70. What we are to understand by ideas of substance.

In regard to those material bodies, by which we are surrounded, we can properly and in truth be said to have a knowledge only of those qualities in them, which are the cause of our simple ideas, or of which our simple ideas are representative. We truly know this, and nothing more; it being altogether beyond our power to form an acquaintance with that, whatever it is, which is imagined to be the essence, SUBSTRATUM, or support of these qualities.

The sentiment here conveyed is expressed in shorter terms by saying, that our knowledge of bodies is limited to the knowledge of their properties.

An idea of substance is that complex state of the mind, which considers a number of qualities, belonging to any particular substance as one, or as naturally and permanently united. And this is the second general division or class of our complex ideas.

Instances are the complex ideas, expressed by the words, sun, loadstone, man, horse, iron, tree, indeed all those intellectual states, which correspond to that great variety of separate, material objects, which continually come beneath our inspection.

In the idea of man we have, among others, the simple ideas of figure, colour, motion, conscience.

§. 71. Spiritual existences included under this class.

But ideas of substance are not to be limited, as might

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