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employ native converts in any other capacity than as lay-helpers. The deputation was doubtless right in this thing; and it would be interesting, could space be afforded, to compare their views on the manner of conducting missions, as they appear in the documents of those times, with the teachings of experience in the subsequent forty or fifty years. A single sentence may be quoted, as to what they regarded as How to civil- the best method of promoting civilization pagans. among a savage people. "A clerical missionary," they say, "will do more towards promoting civilization among the Polynesians, by a wellcultivated garden, a neat house, decent furniture, and becoming clothing, with the ability to instruct those around him how to make any article of furniture that may attract attention, than fifty artisans, sent for the express purpose of teaching their arts to the heathen."

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About this time, the first Christian marriage First Chris- was performed. It was the marriage of riage. this same Thomas Hopu with a Hawaiian maiden, who had received the Christian name of Delia. She had been instructed in the family of Mr. and Mrs. Thurston. To give the marriage due consequence, it took place at the close of public worship, in the presence of a large congregation composed of natives and foreigners, and was certified by the gentlemen of the English deputation. Delia proved an "affectionate, obedient, faithful wife."

The first reinforcement.

The first reinforcement of the mission arrived in the ship Thames, Captain Clasby, in the spring of 1823. It consisted of the Rev. Messrs. Bishop, Richards, and Stewart; Messrs. Ely and Goodrich, licensed preachers; Dr. Blatchley, a



physician; Mr. Levi Chamberlain, who was to act as secular superintendent for the mission; and three Hawaiians from the Foreign Mission School at Cornwall. They were kindly received by the government, and the king addressed a note to the captain, commending him for bringing the new teachers, and remitting his harbor fees.





THE chief men of the nation had come under a civilizing influence to a certain degree. The odoriferous sandal-wood used in the religious chiefs. worship of China, was a monopoly of the government, and the trade was in its full vigor. Merchants gladly brought to the islands whatever insured an extravagant price from the king and his chiefs. This continued until the outlays of the government no longer left it the means of paying. A public and formal reception was given to the first reinforcement of the mission, in what might be called the palace, a large thatched building, said to resemble in its appearance a inforcement. Dutch barn; with a door at each end, windows in the sides, and Venetian shutters, but no glass. The interior formed one apartment. The side-posts, the pillars supporting the ridge-pole, and the rafters, were fastened together by cords made from the husk of the cocoanut. The floor was of mats, and chandeliers hung suspended between the pillars. Mahogany tables, sofas, chairs from China, mirrors, and two full-length portraits of the king, completed the conveniences and decorations of the room.1

Formal reception to the first re

At Kailua, on Hawaii, the king's hall of audience, 1 Stewart's Residence at the Sandwich Islands, p. 79.



if such it might be called, where he first received the missionaries, was a contrast to this. The contrast It was described as a dingy, unfurnished at Kailua. building made of thatch. And when his Majesty came on board the brig at that place, to dine with the only company of white women he had ever seen, his clothing, in accordance with the taste and fashion of the time, was a narrow girdle around his waist, a green silk scarf over his shoulders, a string of large beads on his otherwise bare neck, and a wreath of feathers on his head; without coat, vest, pants, or shirt, without hat, gloves, shoes, or stockings. The best shelter he was then able to offer the twenty-two persons composing the mission, was "a large barn-like, thatched structure, without floor, ceiling, partition, windows, or furniture."

At the reception of the first reinforcement at Honolulu, three years later, the dress of the king and of his chiefs of both sexes was after the civilized fashion.

It is not a pleasant duty to describe the moral condition of these islanders, as it was when Christian labor among them commenced; but the subsequent triumphs of divine grace cannot be appreciated without such a description.

The intemperate habits of the king were a sore trial, not only to the missionaries, but also Habits of the to many of his chiefs and people. When king. he visited the Thames, to return the call made upon him by the gentlemen of the reinforcement, he was sober, in fine health and spirits, handsomely dressed, and easy in his manners, his whole deportment being that of a gentleman. Some weeks after this, a royal dinner was given, and numerously



attended, with a great show of court dresses and Hawaiian ceremonies. Mr. Stewart describes a procession he saw, as one which, from the richness and variety of dress and colors, would have formed an interesting spectacle to visitors from civilized countries. Yet the king and his suite made a sorry. exhibition. They were nearly naked, on horses without saddles, and so intoxicated as scarcely to be able to retain their seats as they scampered from place to place, in all the disorder of a troop of bacchanalians. A body guard of fifty or sixty men, in shabby uniform, attempted by a running march to keep near their sovereign; while hundreds of ragged natives, filling the air with their hootings and shoutings, followed the chase. The dull and monotonous sounds of the native drum and calabash in the progress of this festival, the wild songs and the pulsations of the ground under the tread of thousands in the dance, fell on the heart of the missionaries with saddening power, since they knew them to be associated with exhibitions that might not be described.

The common

When the mission was commenced, the common people were everywhere at the lowest point people. of social degradation. They deemed themselves well off with a mat braided from rushes or leaves, a few folds of native cloth for a cover at night, a few calabashes for water and po-i, a rude implement or two for cultivating the ground, and the instruments used in their simple manufactures. A species of arum called kalo, and the sweet potatoe, with occasionally a fish eaten raw, constituted their usual food. The banana was cultivated to some

1 Stewart's Residence, p. 94.

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